December Links and Review

Every week, my newsletter subscribers get links to some of the goodies that I’ve come across on the internets.

Here were the goodies that my peeps got their learn on in December

If you want to get a copy of my weekend learning goodies every Friday, fill out the form below.  That way you can brag to all your friends about the cool things you’ve learned over the weekend.

Biggest Lesson of the Month

I’ve been thinking a lot about generalism and specialism. Becoming a generalist involves implementing things with an individual that intend to have systemic effects, whereas the specialist implements things that intend to have a specific effect.

Think about encouraging your clients to sleep effectively, eat more vegetables, and move effectively. Implementing these three strategies will lead to system-wide effects first and foremost, and may impact a specific goal that you have. These are the tools of a generalist

On the flipside, consider a surgical procedure, medication, etc. These modalities have a higher likelihood of meeting a specific goal first and foremost, but the system-wide effect is less certain.

Though upon careful reflection on this thought, really anything we implement as a generalist or specialist is riddled with uncertainty.

Both types of practitioners are necessary to maximize health, longevity, and/or performance.

Quote of the Month

“Ego is about who’s right. Truth is about what’s right.” ~Mike Maples Jr

Ego is something I’ve been working on getting control of over the last year, and it has been most impactful in my overall happiness and well being. I just wish I took this quote to heart much earlier in life.

Hike of the Month

Hiking frequency has gone down a bit because it’s so…dang…cold, but I had a dope hike at Joshua Tree.

#throwback to older times, fam

It wasn’t the most challenging hike, but had a wide variety of things to see. Whether it was an old mine, or climbing a mountain, you could definitely get your nature gains on point.

And the Joshua Trees themselves, Hyoooge. Way bigger than any of the others I’ve ever seen.

Rehabilitation

Is keeping up with evidence realistic? Welcome to a Blog I’d Like to Read

Peter Attia is one of the most interesting MDs I’ve come across. While most of this blog talks about his plans for the future, his thoughts on keeping up with the evidence are worth the read alone.

Destruction of a medical divide with “Complimentary and Alternative Medicine” Belongs on a Tombstone

Douglas Kechijian just keeps killing it with content. In this post, Doug provides coherent critiques on the supposed separation between CAM and EBM. The two aren’t as far off as you think.

Here are Three Reasons to Consider Travel PT

Here are the reasons why I considered this wonderful job style.

The struggles of keeping up with the EBP Joneses.

With the shear amount of journal articles released on a given day, it can be near impossible to stay fully evidenced-based.

Here is a quick little tip on how I keep up with the research if you aren’t already doing this.

Research shows breathing critical for survival

So you should probably master the basics on how to do so. Daddy-O-Pops Bill Hartman put out a great article this week titled Breathing Exercises to Move Better and Reduce pain.

In this joint, pops goes over why breathing retraining is important, how it can impact movement, and how to master the basics.

Definitely check this one out.

How to reach like a legend

I found quite an effective cue that I’ve been using as of late to enhance reaching-based activities.

Many times, peeps will round their back as opposed to retracting the thorax, but if you use this cue, the problem is often solved.

Give it a shot!

Performance

Do you even recover, bruh? 

All Pain, No Gain: Why High Intensity Training Obsession Has Failed Us All thinks otherwise.

I was first made aware of the constrained theory of energy expenditure by Mike Roussell, and Joel Jamison takes the concept to another level. This article made me really think about how I am approaching building my own fitness, and just how important recovery is.

Excited to make it through the series as it comes out.

What these coaches want from a strength coach.

Monitoring players for fitness and fatigue: what do coaches want helps bridge that gap.

One of the most challenging aspects I had with sports science is getting buy-in from the coaching staff.

Here, Yan Le Meur boils it down to the most important aspects that a coach wants to know, as well as which variables are most actionable from an intervention standpoint. It’s an infographic I wish I had while in the league.

Insights on assessment

Thoroughly enjoyed Dean Somerset’s take on What Assessments Work Best.

I love how Dean preached individualization in regards to the assessment process. Many times we seek models that place clients into buckets or patterns, but Dean reminds us to keep the client’s goals in mind. This cannot be emphasized enough.

Sports science overrated???!?!

Hearing Doug Kechijian’s podcast with Fergus Connolly definitely has me thinking so.

In this podcast, Fergus talks about why it is hard to make decisions on sports science data, why you should sleep on technology for awhile, why the art of coaching is still relevant, and so much more.

You and your science. pshh.

Personal Development

The One Key to Happiness

Moving from Impressing Others to Impressing Yourself was a very salient read for me.

Many times we all fall into the trap of saving face, of looking good in front of other people. Trent Hamm provides a coherent argument against this type of thinking in order to curb spending.

But the lessons extend well beyond money.

Kill those unproductive days with Death Clock

Ever find yourself having a hankering to watch just one Youtube video only to find yourself watching 6 hours worth of cat videos? This app, which Tim Ferris exposed me to, nips that time waster in the bud by showing roughly how many days are left in your life. Like sand through the hourglass or something, fam (see what I did there?)

Turning 30 is all types of hell…

But my boi Seth Oberst makes the most of it.

Seth recently reflected on the 30 lessons he learned by age 30, and I found the post incredibly inciteful. I’d call it part rehab, part philosophical, part psychological, and full awesome.

Learning from a cat like Seth has made me a much more well-rounded clinician.

Confidence low? Become a philospher

More specificially, a Stoic philosopher.

In Eric Barker’s Stoicism Reveals 4 Rituals That Will Make You Confident, Eric discusses strategies that the Stoics used, which are also used in cognitive behavioral therapy, to improve confidence levels when things go awry.

My favorite has to be challenging distored thoughts. Way more productive than challenging your mortal facebook enemy on Dry Needling for the 17th time this month.

Appreciate stoicism and you too, may have a bust built in your honor someday!

The choice is yours…or is it?

Making decisions can be an overwhelming process.

So do fewer of them.

In Choosing without Deciding, Seth Godin briefly provides an effective strategy for deliberating on decisions that require deliberation, and leaving less important choices to easier means.

Health & Wellness

Helping save healthcare with Chris Kresser – Unconventional Medicine

More great Robb Wolf podcasts. This time, it was my boi Chris Kresser. I absolutely love some of the solutions he presents to saving healthcare, as well as how salient he creates awareness of the problem of healthcare.

Am I stressing you out? Doubtful according to Andrew Bernstein – The Myth of Stress

Stressors are a myth. It’s all in how you react to stress. Hearing that concept alone is worth the listen from yet again, another great Robb Wolf podcast.

Are you selling your sleep short?

If you only give yourself 7 totals hours in bed (with 1 hour of scouring the cats of Instagram), chances are your sellling your sleep game short.

In this great read called How to Get a Tiny Bit More Sleep, Melissa Dahl discusses the concept of sleep opportunity. Something we rarely consider when we are trying to catch those z’s.

You can have holiday cookies…

If you are getting after it the rest of the time.

In a wonderful post, Daddy-O Pops Bill Hartman talks about How to Eat Whatever You Want Over the Holidays and not Feel Guilty. Having the habits in place throughout the rest of the year is the key to enjoying the holidays guilt-free.

The benefits of a digital detox

If there is one thing I struggle with, being an internet cat and all, it’s getting too engrossed into technology.

In Digital Detox: How and Why to Recharge Your Mind with an Unplugged Weekend, Drew Housman discusses what his experience was like eliminating technology, and the incredible benefits he obtained from it.

The two things I am attempting to do: go hike more (no service no problems) and airplane mode the first 30 minutes of when I get up.

Your time restricted eating questions have been answered

Round 2 of Rhonda Patrick’s podcast with Satchin Panda talks about how coffee impacts circadian rhythm, practical implementations, the difference between 16:8 fasting and TRE, and so much more. A very fun listen.

Music

So uh, Blackbear released an incredible mixtape…

NOTE: NSFW, lots o’ foul language with this one.

So a cat who I’ve been really digging, Blackbear, released a new mixtape called Cybersex, and it’s unbelievable.

For those who don’t know who Blackbear is, imagine if Jason Mraz became punk, hip hop, R&B, all in one, then up the attitude by 1000x. Then you have Blackbear.

This album shows his range of talents, and he hangs with many of the awesome features, including Cam’ron (#diplomats), Rick Ross, 2 Chainz, Ne-Yo, and many more.

My top 3 tracks: Playboy Shit, Bright Pink Tims, and Gucci Linen.

So why aren’t you listening to CyHi the Prynce?

After I was sadly disappointed with Eminem’s newest album (which really hurts because he is my top emcee), I was lost. Was there going to be anymore good hip hop released?

Then I listen to No Dope on Sundays by CyHi the Prynce, and my faith was restored.

I tried to think of my top tracks, but really the album from start to finish is absolutely awesome. Even the trap-y tracks are rock solid. Amazing features, and street poetry at its finest.

No more sleepin’ on CyHi, fam.

Which goodies did you find useful? Comment below and let me know what you think.

Photo Credits

Sports Authority of India

J.D. Falk

Wikipedia

How to Organize Journals, Blogs, and Articles

You wake up, make your bed, do your ahem, bathroom business, then slowly sulk your way to the kitchen to get some coffee brewing.

While the good stuff brews, you open up your computer and decide to check what’s going on in the good old internet today.

Then it happens.

You see 20 new blogs on your blogroll, Facebook has shared 13 different posts that sound unbelievable, but oh wait, check out that tweet showing Tim Ferriss finally interviewed Zac Cupples (#dreaming), and then oh snap, Eminem just dropped another new song on Spotify!

And then you accomplish nothing.

Except listening to the new Eminem, that will always be a worthwhile accomplishment

I see this problem time and time again with many of the mentees that I work with, and I occasionally fall into the trap myself. We see so many interesting articles coming out on a regular basis, and the pull from FOMO is real.

With so much to consume and so little time, what are we to do?

The short answer: consume at the right time.

Yes, the learning process has to involve impeccable timing with consumption. I’ve spoken about just in time learning ad nauseam (here and here), and it is key to both solving problems and retentaining new information.

Consuming a cornucopia of random posts, articles, podcasts, and Youtube videos without direction is a recipe for time wasting.  You fleet from one cool article to the next and…oh wait, what was that last article about?

We’ve all been there, and the struggle is real.

So how do we overcome this nerd FOMO that we all at some point give into?

What we have to do is give in to that little dopamine hit that comes with every click, but repurpose what we do what the new information.

Instead of consumption, we shift to accumulation.

The Death of Consumption

When you accumulate and store articles, posts, etc, you not only satisfy your nerd craving, but also build an arsenal of things to reference when the learning time is right.

Here is an example of one of my accumulation folders that I have for research on a specific topic.

Locked and loaded.

One of my future areas of study is going to be in nutrition, because I know how powerful supportive nutrition can be, but it’s just not in the cards for me right now.

When I come across a study that sounds incredibly intriguing, I sock it away in the nutrition folder, knowing that I’ll be able to pull that relevant study when the time is right.

Or perhaps a better article will come out that makes the former study irrelevant, which means I save time by trashing the outdated article.

It is this accumulation, this nerd stockpiling, that has me prepared to dive into any topic at a moment’s notice.

I call it, Zacmed™.

All rights reserved. Sadly, there is nothing right about me.

Here is how you can build your own.

Research Mining 101

Research accumulation where I spend a bulk of my stockpiling time. Gotta stay #EBP if ya know what I’m sayin’.

This process works not just for journal articles, but basically any downloadables. That means ebooks, powerpoints, JPEGs, anything goes through this process.

Here are the mining steps.

Step 1: Subscribe to journal article email alerts

This piece is critical. It’s hard to keep up with the latest and greatest of research with just a Pubmed search. Hell, you may not even know what keywords to look for.

If Pubmed searching is shopping on Amazon, email alerts is going to Barnes and Noble. Yes, you limit your selection, but your browsing can be much more focused. Fewer options make for easier selection.

If you want a quick an easy way to subscribe to mulitple journal alerts, get a free account at ScienceDirect. Just sign up, go to manage alerts, and you are in business.

Journal selection is going to be totally dependent on what you do and what trips your trigger, but here is a list of the journal I subscribe to (I’ll add more as time goes on, I sometimes forget which ones I subscribe to):

Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy

International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy

Physical Therapy

British Journal of Sports Medicine

Sleep

Thorax

Frontiers in (way too many of them)

The Lancet

New England Journal of Medicine

Journal of American Medical Association

Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 

Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

Another possible option is scouring social media, which I sometimes do, but you have to watch not getting sucked down cat videos for multiple hours.

Yeah. It’s a lot of possible information coming into your inbox, but the key to not being overwhelmed is in the screening process.

Step 2: Screen the email alerts

Once the floodgates open on your email alerts, you must slow the information flow by properly screening useful studies.

The simple solution is to scan the titles. If your interest is piqued, click on the article, scan the abstract, then decide whether or not you need to pursue article acquisition.

I try to get each email done in under 60 seconds. If nothing is intriguing, delete.

Step 3: Project PDF Procurement

Now the fun begins. Many journals will have open access (yay), some you may have to go with like a google scholar or other type of search to get access (meh), and of course you’ll have some brilliant pieces that deny easy access (boo).

How’s a fam supposed to stay #EBP in this case?

Well I can’t tell you directly how to get article access, but this blog does a great job of explaining the many different ways you can retrieve articles. Some legal, some well, more along the Robin Hood side of acquisition. It’s your conscience, not mine.

Once you get the “physical” article copy, move on to step four.

Step 4: Place the PDF in the organized folder

Here is the key. As you are downloading articles left and right, you need a place to store them. Download Dropbox and get your 1TB subscription, that way you can access the articles whenever you so desire.

From here, I have 3 folders in which I place my articles:

  • Reading List – Articles I haven’t read
  • Highlights – Articles I’ve read, but haven’t formalized into my notecard system
  • Evidence – Articles I’ve read and that made it to the notecard system

Organize each folder based on the topic of study. Again, this will be individualized, but here is a look at what my reading list folder looks like:

If you have to ask what’s in the PR. Davidson folder, you can’t afford it.

In order to  simplify titles on my notecards and expedite study retrieval for reviews, I have a classification system I use. Like some Dewey Decimal kinda stuff #throwback.

Say I read an article that’s in the ACL folder. I’ll then retitle that ACL7 (if it’s the 7th article I’ve read), then any notecards attributed to that article will have ACL7 in the title space.

Step 5: Scour the folder when a problem arises

Here is the implementation and consumption part. Once you have a problem or question, you browse related folders, pick titles that seem like they would help you, read, and repeat. This is exactly the process I went through for my pain and breathing talks.

Saving Blogs and Articles

The process is a bit different for internet articles; namely because it’s a bit more work to get “physical” copies. For these, I have a few separate strategies.

But first, how do I access blogs?

I have two means of getting blog access. One is email subscriptions. Not only with these do you get access to exclusive content, but generally if products come out from people you respect, you’ll get some solid discounts. Definitely worthwhile.

I also have an RSS feed through Feedly. Here I can see all the newest blogs that my peeps have put out, and it makes reading selection go much faster. If a post is irrelevant to my tastes, I can checkmark that I read it, and it goes away.

If the post is relevant, then I have a couple options:

Option 1: Read/skim immediately

The only reason I do this is because I want to share current stuff with my newsletter fam. Unless it’s like something super fascinating. Sometimes you have to give in. People write interesting stuff it turns out.

If something really resonates with me, and I need to know it for later, I’ll notecard it immediately or take notes on Google Keep and notecard later.

Option 2: Download to Evernote

This is by far my favorite option and most used. If there is a post or article that I know I want to read, but don’t have time when it comes out, I’ll simply copy the text and paste it to Evernote.

What’s nice about this strategy is that I can then read the article offline on any device, greatly enhancing portability.  And if you are a Feedly user, you can save the article immediately to Evernote.

Pocket is also another potential option, but what’s nice about Evernote is I can categorize articles in a manner similarly to what I do for research articles. That way when a topic comes up, I just go through Zacmed™ and Zacnote™ for inspiration.

Coming to an app store near you

Sum Up

Accumulating and categorizing is the key to saving time, staying focused, and being prepared when a problem comes your way.

To summarize:

  • Accumulate first, consume second
  • Subscribe to journal alerts
  • Design categorical systems to place your information
  • Scour when the time is right

What strategies do you use to accumulate knowledge? Comment below and let us know!

Photo Credits

Pixabay

Wikimedia Commons (modified by yours truly)

Flickr (modified by yours truly)

November Links and Review

Every week, my newsletter subscribers get links to some of the goodies that I’ve come across on the internets.

Here were the goodies that my peeps got their learn on from this past August.

If you want to get a copy of my weekend learning goodies every Friday, fill out the form below.  That way you can brag to all your friends about the cool things you’ve learned over the weekend.

Biggest Lesson of the Month

Don’t beat yourself up if you aren’t hitting perfection day in and day out. Consistent progress over time is the key.

There have been many days where I wasn’t motivated to stay on task, and faltered. The key to getting back on the proverbial horse the next day was to not beat myself up. Instead, acknowledge that these things happen, understand I’m human, and get after it the next day.

You’d be amazed at what this shift in perspective can do.

Quote of the Month

“Greatness is a lot of small things done daily” ~ MJ Demarco

MJ Demarco again takes the cake this month. This quote made me reflect a lot on just how many small, quality habits, can make an impact on life. What small things can you do to become great?

Hike of the Month

A late steal this month, but got a chance to check out Death Valley National Park.

Salt > snow. Equally as pretty, less slippery, and DEFINITELY warmer

I wasn’t really sure what to expect with this place since, ya know, it’s hot and things are kinda dead n’ stuff, but the variety in landscape was quite unbelievable. Landscape that I have never experienced before, whether salt lands or sand dunes. I’d definitely consider checking this awesome place out.

Rehabilitation

 

Here’s a little sneak preview of the free talk I’ll be putting up for you guys once I re-record it!

Blog: What Evidence Based Practice is Not

Doug Kechijian always telling it like it is. This time, my younger older brother discusses how to think about evidence based practice. How it is much more than a bomb of Pubmed citations. I also love how he touches on effective discussion on the internet.

Here is a little variation on differential tendon gliding you can try next time you see someone with a flexor tendon repair.

Blog: Should We Delay Range of Motion After a Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery?

Mike Reinold again coming on strong with this post. This time, Mike looks at a systematic review comparing early vs. delayed motion after a cuff repair, and I love his interpretation.

Training

Video: Kettlebell Swing Tutorial w/ Justice Williams (via Tony Gentilcore)

My kettlebell game is something I’m hoping to improve upon over the next year, and this was a great intro point to it. Here, Tony Gentilcore and Justice Williams provide an excellent coaching tutorial on the wonderful/brutal exercise known as the kettlebell swing.

 

Productivity

 

Article: Trick Yourself Into Writing Well by Telling Yourself to Write Badly

Lifehacker is an awesome website for many reasons, and this article is an example of that.

Many times, getting started writing is the hardest part, here, the peeps at Lifehacker give you a trick to getting started. Works wonders for those days I don’t want to write.

Making this one little tweak to how I plan email checking throughout my day has made a big difference.

Personal Development

Book: What to do When It’s Your Turn

A dear friend of mine got me this book, which has become my pre-bed reading and I love it. Seth Godin, marketer extraordinaire, writes in this book about handling fear of failure, getting the courage to start something up, and how timing is never right. These are a few of many great topics that I’ve come across, and I always fall asleep in a good mood after I read a few pages 🙂

Blog: These are the 8 Friends You Need to be Happy in Life

Social engagement is something we don’t discuss much when we are trying to reach our health and performance goals. Here, Eric Barker talks about the eight people you should have in your life. How many do you have?

Article: How Frequently Should You Take A Vacation?

This is probably the most comprehensive guide to vacationing that I have come across. It turns out, vacations are incredibly important to your health.

Don’t like vacations? Consider your increase for cardiovascular disease elevated. Read the guide to maximizing them.

Just need to make life a vacation #movesomewherewarm

Blog: How One Young Couple Repaid $87,000 of Student Loan Debt in 27 Months

If you have student loans. Read this. It’s hard work, gruesome, but paying off debt has been a rewarding experience for me. If you are lacking motivation, or can’t see the light at the end of the tunnel, here is some hope.

Blog: Struggling Against Good Decisions with Bad Results

This was just a phenomenal message that can be extrapolated not to just finances, but life. Here, Trent Hamm discusses the importance of sticking to sound principles, even if those principles don’t always result in a desirable outcome

Book: Discipline Equals Freedom Field Manual

If you need a swift kick in the ass to get back into gear, this is the book. Many of the pages are snippets from Jocko Willink’s podcast, but the message is not lost. Jocko will make you rethink everything your doing, and eliminate the excuses for you not doing. Change your life, and read this book.

Book: Unscripted

After you’ve been kicked down by Jocko, let MJ Demarco pull off the finisher. This guy is becoming one of my favorite authors because he is brutally honest and pulls no punches in explaining how we fall into business and work traps that not only hinder us, but minimize helping others. If you want to be an entrepreneur (and you all should, this book tells you why) then this is a must read.

My favorite part? “The goal isn’t to make money, but to provide value to others.”

Health and Wellness

 

Podcast: Dr. Ruscio – The Real Deal with Gut Microbiota

I’ve been binge listening to Robb Wolf’s podcast, and I’ve come across Dr. Ruscio a couple different times. I admire his brutal honesty and simple approach to dealing with the gut microbiome, and I hope you guys like it as well.

Want to know some of my big keys for starting my day off right? Check out this week’s quick hit.

Podcast: Dr. Richard Maurer – The Blood Code

Again, another simplified and stratified approach to functional medicine courtesy of the Robb Wolf podcast. Here, Dr. Maurer outlines his key blood markers and first-tier treatment to help individuals with their health and wellness goals.

Article: Do You Need to Refrain from Coffee to Get the Maximal Effect of Caffeine?

If you want to maximize performance, do you need to give up coffee for a bit to get the benefits? Researchers compared how caffeine affects performance in heavy, moderate, and low users.

The answer might surprise you!

The addiction is now #ebp #blessed

 

Which goodies did you find useful? Comment below and let me know what you think.

Photo Credits

Nick Kenrick

Julius Schorzman

Squats, the (F)Utility of Research, Total Knees, and Pain vs. Suffering – Movement Debrief Episode 18

Just in case you missed last night’s Movement Debrief Episode 18, here is a copy of the video and audio for your listening pleasure.

in this debrief, I was stumped!

Andrew from Facebook asked a phenomenal question on the biomechanics of the squat, which led to great discussion on what it means and takes to squat.  Great contributions from Dani and Jonathan to the discussion.

Here were all the topics:

  • How I use research
  • Influences on full knee extension and flexion post-operatively
  • Changing perception of rehab post-total knee arthroplasty
  • The problems with chasing pain
  • Pain vs. suffering
  • What is squatting, what it means, and the biomechanicsIf you want to watch these live, add me on Facebook, Instagram, or Youtube. They air every Wednesday at 8:30pm CST.

Enjoy.

                

Here were the links I mentioned tonight

Pain and Stress in a Systems Perspective: Reciprocal Neural, Endocrine and Immune Interactions

On the (f)utility of pain

Subscribe to the debrief on Itunes

Join my mentorship program, get a movement consultation, or let me design an online fitness program for you.

Here’s a signup for my newsletter to get a free acute:chronic workload calculator, basketball conditioning program, podcasts, and weekend learning goodies:

 

The Sensitive Nervous System Chapter XIII: Research and Neurodynamics: Is Neurodynamics Worthy of Scientific Merit?

This is a summary of Chapter XIII of “The Sensitive Nervous System” by David Butler.

Intro

Research has demonstrated that often evidenced-based medicine is low on the list for why clinicians choose a particular treatment. From an ethical standpoint, it is important to consider evidence. This chapter is very short so I will just provide the highlights that I got from it.

Appraising a New Theory or Approach

There are six criteria that a new theory should be evaluated by:

1)      Support from anatomical and physiological evidence.

2)      Designed for a specific population.

3)      Studies from peer-reviewed journals.

4)      Include a well-designed randomized controlled trial or single experiment.

5)      Present potential side effects.

6)      Proponents discuss and are open to limitations.

Agreement

Here are some definitions of different ways research measures agreement.

–          Cohen’s Kappa: Measures nominal data reliability.

  • >0.75 is excellent agreement.
  • 0.40-0.75 is fair to good.
  • <0.40 is poor.

–          Pearson product movement correlation: Measures interval/ratio data.

–          ICC: Measures continuous data.

  • The closer to 1, the better.

Validity

There are also many different validity types defined throughout this chapter. The first two are proven through logic and have the least evidence support.

–          Construct Validity: Valid relative to a theoretical foundation.

–          Content Validity: Can I use this measure to make an inference?

The next two are higher up on the evidence support hierarchy.

–          Convergent Validity: The test shows a correlation between two variables.

–          Discriminant Validity: The test shows a low correlation between two variables.

Lastly, these are criterion-based tests that infer similar results compared to an established test.

–          Concurrent Validity: the compared tests are performed at the same time.

–          Predictive Validity: The tests are compared at different dates.

If only EBP were as exciting as evidence-based law.