Did you miss Movement Debrief live yesterday? Though much more fun live, I have a video of what we discussed below.
This debrief was quite fun, as we had an impromptu viewer q&a. Thank you Alan Luzietti for the awesome questions! If you follow along live on Facebook or Youtube, I will do my best to answer any questions you ask.
Yesterday we discussed the following topics:
Why you should emphasize sagittal plane activities longer than you think
How to coach exercises to maximize client learning and compliance
Why detaching from your client encounters makes you a better clinician
Viewer Q&A – “centering from the chaos” & TFL Inhibition
Lastly, if you want the acute:chronic workload calculator I spoke about, click here.
I had learned so much about what they do in PRI vision that I was feeling somewhat okay with implementation.
Then my friends told me about the updates they made in this course.
I signed up as quickly as possibly, and am glad I did. This course has reached a near-perfect flow and the challenging material is much more digestible.
Don’t expect to know the what’s and how’s of Ron and Heidi’s operation. And realistically, you probably don’t need to.
Your job as a clinician is to take advantage of what the visual system can do, implement that into a movement program, and refer out as needed. This blog will try to explain the connection between these two systems.
If you want more of the nitty-gritty programming, I strongly recommend reading my first round with this course. Otherwise, you might be a little lost.
Note: I made some errors on the first rendition of this blog that were corrected after speaking with Eric Oetter. Courtesy to him, Lori Thomsen, and Ron Hruska for cleaning up some concepts.
Four Months Later
When the Lori Thomsen says to come to Cervical Revolution, you kinda have to listen.
I was slightly hesitant to attend since I had taken this course back in January. I mean, it was only the 3rd course rendition. How much could have changed?
Holy schnikes! It is simply amazing what four months of polishing can do. It was as though I attended a completely different course. Did I get it all figured out? No. But the clarity gained this weekend left me feeling a lot better about this very complex material.
This is a course that will only continue to get better with time; if you have a chance to attend please do.
Let’s now have a moment of clarity.
The craniocervical region is the most mobile section of the vertebral column.
This mobility allows regional sensorimotor receptors to provide the brain accurate information on occipital position and movement.
The neck moves with particular biomechanics. Fryette’s laws suggest that the cervical spine produces ipsilateral spinal coupling in rotation and sidebending. The OA joint, on the other hand, couples contralaterally.
C2 is the regulator of cervical spine motion; much like the first rib regulates rib cage movement.
C2 is also important for the mandible, as it balances the cervical spine during mandibular opening. The reason this occurs is because the mandible and C2 are at the same fulcrum level.
Often triplanar motion will decrease amidst progressive respiratory demand or threat. These changes help promote neck stability while simultaneously increasing demand on the mandibular elevators, extraocular muscles, and vestibular system
If these changes occurs long enough, sensory issues may become prominent.
Stability can occur through increased sagittal plane activity in the upper cervical spine and cranium either one of two ways:
O on A via posterior cranial rotation
A on O via forward head posture
Both strategies attempt to flex the cranium, but both are undesirable if occurring underneath a lost cervical lordosis.
OA hyperflexion is often seen in those who sit in front of monitors for long periods of time. The visual system helps promote stability.
OA Hyperextension is an attempt to create an airway. Cranial protrusion may be utilized as a way to open up the airway under stable conditions. This position passively raises the hyoid bone, which often depresses when one uses a mouth-breathing strategy. These individuals rely heavily on the dentition for craniocervical awareness.
Of course, these are not the only ways undesirable neck stability can occur.
You might have a stable neck if:
You have a narrow palate.
You have a cross bite.
You have a narrow airway.
Patterned Mechanics 3037
The TMCC is the foundational polyarticular muscle chain at the neck, with the right side generally more active than the left.
The normal RTMCC pattern presents with the following at the neck:
C2-C7 orientation in the transverse and frontal plane to the right, with compensatory rotation and sidebending to the left.
The OA joint is sidebent to the right and rotated left as a passive orientation.
The RTMCC may be present in isolation or with various cranial strains.
A cranial strain may occur if the left SCM sidebends the OA left within the RTMCC pattern. This compensatory movement occurs to attempt to reduce OA rotation and upper cervical strain.
If you weren’t sleeping during the biomechanics section, you will notice that this goes against Fryette’s laws. In order for this compensatory strategy to occur, the right alar ligament and posterior capitis muscle must become lax. This movement does help reduce torsion and compression on the upper cervical segments, but may create a cranial lesion in the process.
This compensatory movement is a precursor to a left sidebending cranial lesion, and this lesion along with others are quite prominent.
According to a 2008 study by Timoshkin and Sandhouse, 72% of individuals have a cranium that is in a sidebend or torsion pattern; with left sidebend and right torsion being the most common.
Of those two cranial strains, the left sidebend will be the most common. Let’s dive into that pattern more.
Left sidebend (LSB)
The LSB lesion is named for the sphenoid’s greater wing position. In this case, the greater wing is high on the right and low on the left. The occiput matches this orientation.
Where these bones will differ occurs about a vertical axis; as the sphenoid externally rotates while the occiput internally rotates.
The mechanical change at the atlas drives this position. The sphenoid just goes along for the ride.
A prime example of this cranial strain would be the lovely Garey Busey.
Right Torsion (RT)
RT’s also have a low left greater wing of the sphenoid, but the big difference is at the sphenobasilar joint.
Since the RT is a progression from the LSB, the occiput will attempt to sidebend right to level occipital position. Since the sphenoid stays in position, torsion through the sphenobasilar joint occurs.
This twist is driven by the sphenoid as means to create pseudo-facial symmetry via extension.
Lorimer Moseley is actually a perfect example of this type of cranial position, as many facial features are flipped from a LSB face.
This is a Test
The only way to truly determine which cranial strain one has is through imaging, but PRI testing can guide us down a treatment path.
Admittedly, the cervical tests are not the most reliable of the PRI bunch. To attempt to offset this limitation, we shall imply a test battery to determine position.
There are four essential tests in the TMCC algorithm:
Cervical extension: Checks cervical lordosis presence; goal is 30-35 degrees.
If limitations are present it is likely that SCM hyperactivity is reducing the normal lordotic curve.
I think of this test as the extension drop test of the cranium. It tells you if you are working with someone who is sagittally lax or not.
Cervical axial rotation: Checking C7-T1 rotation, which reflects C2 position. Looking for symmetry at about 30-35 degrees of movement. This test determines the TMCC pattern.
Limitations will be present due to the cervical spine’s compensatory rotation and sidebend to the left. Placing the patient supine on a table rotates the spine further to the left, which places a RTMCC patterned neck in an end-range position. Hence, normally left cervical axial rotation is limited. We would see bilateral limitations in a BTMCC.
When performing this test you want to make sure that you do not give the patient a lordosis, for this can create false negatives.
Midcervical sidebending: I think of this test as the great comparer between the cervical spine and the cranium. Looking for symmetry at about 30-35 degrees. This test gives you a frame of reference for our next test.
In the RTMCC pattern, this test is limited to the right secondary to an arthrokinematic block. If the cervical spine is rotated left on the table, the neck cannot sidebend to the right. That’s Fryette’s laws brah!
OA sidebending: This test looks at cranial position. Looking for 8-10 degrees bilaterally.
More than 10 degrees of sidebending would indicate alar ligamentous laxity.
A RTMCC individual would have limited right OA sidebending due to a bony block. In someone with a LSB however, you would have limited L OA sidebending because the left SCM pulls the OA over to the left. A RT could present with just about anything, as pathology is quite prominent in these folks.
RTMCC repositioning and retraining goes about the following progression:
Cervical spine → OA joint → Mandible
The neck is the top priority because its mobility maximizes cranial sensory activity.
Moreover, most cranial activities are integrated multi-joint movements. Spending time doing “basic” PRI sets the foundation for one to combine complex movements.
Mandibular movement is often normalized by the time the neck is cleared. The reason TMJ mobility may be limited because of craniomandibular discord.
In the RTMCC pattern, the right lateral pterygoid works with the right anterior capitis and right SCM to deviate the temporal bone and mandible to the left whilst the occiput (and sphenoid) are “stuck” in the left sidebend position. In a neutral system, we would expect the occiput and sphenoid to move to the right during this cranial movement. This tonal issue could limit mandibular movement.
Thus, a neutral cranium often restores normal TMJ mechanics. If problems still arise, then mandibular re-education may be necessary.
Sometimes you need a Dentist
Of the two common cranial strains, RTs will most likely need integration.
With normal occlusion, one side of teeth should touch while the other discludes. This alternation creates lateral shifting in both the mandible and the cranium.
The canine teeth act as guides for where the jaw ought to be in space. When canines touch during shifting, molar contact follows as the teeth drop into position. This action is called group function.
If group function cannot occur, it is likely that a dentist may need to be involved.
Splint therapy is generally recommended in these cases. More specifically, mandibular splints are the go-to (which I spoke about here and here).
Maxillary splints are generally the devil. These splints tend to increase tongue activity and mandibular clenching to hold the splint in. The one major case that may warrant a maxillary splint is the presence of tori.
Even if not using PRI splints, there are four essential pieces needed from a dentist:
Don’t lock the mouth into a position.
Move head back and jaw forward with canines.
Feel one side occlude while the other side discludes.
Have group function and anterior guidance between incisors.
Note – anterior guidance is when the incisors touch the molars disclude
You might be wondering how I educate people about this stuff in a nonthreatening fashion. I got this neat little tidbit from the Ronimal:
“Periodontal ligaments are so sensitive that a hair will throw off your gait.” ~ Ron Hruska
Think about that statement the next time you get something stuck in your teeth. Drives you crazy right? If there is something undesirable going on with your teeth, you will know about it in some way. Some output will occur.
Moreover, think about what occurs at the dentition when stressed. Do you clench? Reducing this muscle over activity by splint therapy introduces a salient stimulus that could reduce the stress response, if the craniocervical region is involved.
Hint: It usually is.
Infamous Ron Quotes
“Every single bunion and ACL patient is a TMD patient.”
“I love dentistry, but I don’t like dentistry, but I like dentistry.”
“You cannot treat a neck if a neck can’t treat itself.”
“We are a product of how we move our cranium.”
“A bra strap will really mess a tongue up.”
“The worst thing you can do to a patient is splint their neck.”
“We still have a lot of goniometric minds.”
“What good is the polyvagal theory if you don’t understand the neck.”
“Don Neumann is the best book for 1% of the population.”
“Treatment starts when you appreciate frontal plane.”
“How can you treat a TMJ if you can’t control the T?”
“The vehicle you drive is not the problem, it’s the path your on.”
“A twisted levator is an untwisted neck.”
“Hallelujah you have a pattern.”
“When you lose your left ab wall the head and neck will pick up the slack.”
“You can learn a lot about cognition and personality if you look at a neck.”
“You can’t feel CSF flow if you lack a cervical lordosis.”
“Make sense out of sense.”
“A neck that can’t move will produce a cant.”
“Crossbites, pulled bicuspids, and high arches scare me.”
“Sedentary lifestyle and screens demand we go straight.”
You know how sometimes when you are treating someone that individual eventually reveals fairly important information that he or she forgot about.
Yeah that was totally me.
I’ve always had a stuffy nose as far back as I can remember; especially in the winter. The only time breathing felt incredibly easy was when I was eating paleo in college. I have progressively been losing my sense of smell as well.
Must be old age right?
When I spoke with Lori Thomsen about my recent experience, she mentioned at Pelvis that attaining neutrality in certain areas but not others could lead to a “pressure cooker” phenomenon. For example, if I have someone with a neutral neck and thorax, lower extremity symptoms may possibly be more common.
In my case, I had a neutral pelvis at the time my wisdom teeth were pulled. Pull out wisdom teeth and my nasal airway goes crazy. Guess where the pressure went?
It was time to see an ENT.
After viewing my CT scan and airway, my ENT concluded I have patho-scoliosis.
More specifically, airway scoliosis. He found a deviated septum and some enlarged turbinates. These two factors could have a large impact on my breathing capabilities.
To me this made a lot of sense. If you read this article, a nostril will drive air to the ipsilateral lung. So depending on what nasal airway is blocked may dictate whether I am a Right BC or a superior T4.
Moreover, sensory information through the nose travels to the contralateral hemisphere. In my case, my left airway is a bit more open than my right, which would increase sensory input to my right hemisphere.
Per the RTMCC pattern, I actually should have a more open right airway. So this finding would be considered patho per PRI standards. Hence the pathoscoliosis.
Could this abnormality be a contributing factor as to why I am solid on my left side but struggle when I go back to my right? Or even why I’m left-handed? Purely theoretical of course, but something I play around with in my head. I think weird shit like that.
Surgery is not the first line of defense, so we started with conservative measures. I was given a nasal saline rinse and couple nasal sprays to reduce inflammation and symptoms.
Let me tell you, I could notice a difference with the first rinse.
The very first nasal rinse treatment opened up a whole new world for me. I cleaned out the sinuses and immediately measured my horizontal abduction:
20 degrees to 45.
I think I found a new repositioning technique.
The coolest thing? I could smell again. It’s amazing the scents in my apartment and the clinic that I could now pickup that I never noticed before. It was an incredibly rich sensory experience. Sleep quality drastically improved within the first couple nights as well.
The only downside was the effects were not long lasting. It was time for phase two.
Nasal Adductor Pullback
About a month later I went back to the ENT and had an allergy test.
The good news is that I am not allergic to any foods. I can eat anything I want (yay). And actually I didn’t have many allergies at all.
The bad news is that I have a large allergy to perennial rye grass, which is extremely common in AZ. I also have a couple allergies to a few other weeds or molds, but nothing major.
The next step is to try immunotherapy to see if I can reduce my sensitivity to these allergens. This basically amounts to me taking oral drops for the next three years. The hope would be that the threat these allergens are to my system would become nonexistent.
I ought to notice some changes over the next 6 months. If not much symptom-wise is changing, surgery to reduce the turbinates and align the septum will be the likely next step.
If only I could tell the ENT that my symptom was limited cervical axial rotation.
Lori is a very good friend of mine, and we happened to have two of our mentees at the course as well. Needless to say it was a fun family get-together.
Lori was absolutely on fire this weekend clearing up concepts for me and she aptly applied the PRI principles on multiple levels. She has a very systematic approach to the course, and is a great person to learn from, especially if you are a PRI noob.
Here were some of the big concepts I shall reflect on. If you want the entire course lowdown, read the first time I took the course here.
Extension = Closing Multiple Systems
This right here is for you nerve heads.
It turns out the pelvis is an incredibly neurologically rich area.
What happens if a drive my pelvis into a position of extension for a prolonged period of time?
I’ve written a lot about how Shacklock teaches closing and opening dysfunctions with the nervous system. An extended position here over time would increase tension brought along the pelvic nerves. Increased tension = decreased bloodflow = sensitivity.
We can’t just limit it to nerves however, the same would occur in the vasculature and lymphatic system. We get stagnation of many vessels.
Perhaps we need to think of extension as system closure; a system closing problem. Flexion will be the solution to open the system.
Pausing after an exhalation gives diaphragms time to ascend. Diaphragmatic ascension maximizes the zone of apposition (ZOA). The better ZOA we have, the less accessory musculature needed to take an adequate breath.
The two important ZOAs needed in this course are at the thoracic and pelvic diaphragms. We want to build synchronicity between these two diaphragms.
The way we do that is through the pelvic inlet.
The inlet links and adequately positions these two diaphragms via internal obliques and transversus abdominis (IO/TA).
To determine how this occurs, we must look at how breathing affects musculature.
This part here was a huge lightbulb moment for me. Muscle lengthening correlates with inhalation, and muscle shortening correlates with exhalation. So to create a stretch in areas you wish to lengthen, you may want to inhale, and to increase muscle contractility, you may with to exhale.
[Note: This is one reason in lifting exhalation is during the concentric phase and inhalation is during the eccentric phase?]
Now lets apply this concept to the pelvic inlet in an extended system. Let’s say the left innominate is forward (a LAIC pattern). My left IO/TA on would be eccentrically lengthened and in a state of inhalation. The left thoracic and pelvic diaphragms would be tonically active and form a v-shape.
This dyssynchrony explains why certain pelvic and thoracic tests correlate. The LAIC pattern suggests that I would not be able to adduct my left hip.
At the pelvis, this would occur because I have a “long” left anterior outlet and “short” posterior outlet.
The outlet and the thorax reflect one another. In this case, my anterior outlet is equivalent to the ipsilateral anterior chest wall and my posterior outlet is equivalent to the posterior mediastinum.
Guess what the tests will look like? I will have good left apical expansion and limited left posterior mediastinum expansion. I can’t adduct my left thorax or abduct my right thorax, much like I can’t adduct my left hip or abduct my right hip. These tests look at the same thing the pelvic tests do.
The Definitive Word on PRI Squatting
We can look at one’s ability to actively synchronize the thoracic and pelvic diaphragms by one’s ability to squat.
The functional squat test is an excellent way to show if one is capable of maximal pelvic diaphragm ascension and can shut off extensor tone. It also is a test to see if one has a patho-compensatory pelvic floor; for if you can squat but can’t adduct your hips, you gotz problems.
Here is what the functional squat test is not: a position to go under load in the weight room.
The above was straight out of Lori’s mouth. So to all the people who talk smack about the PRI squat, your answer is above. It’s not looking at the same thing as a max effort back squat.
Here’s how to test it.
Sitting is Hahhhd
In PRI land, sitting is the most challenging position to be in.
Why? Because there are less points which one can reference. Sitting unsupported requires proprioception exclusively on your ischial tuberosities. Success here relies on alternating and reciprocal muscle recruitment. If I don’t have this, I will extend.
Some Quick Postural Eyes
Lori is a great at predicting how dynamic movements will look on the table. Here were a couple things that stood out to me in this regard, as well as a couple other random things.
Leg whipping means an individual likely has a femur stuck in adduction.
Patho-compensatory people usually have more narrow hips. Could possibly be more common in males for this reason.
People who lean to one side in gait need a glute med.
If one cramps during an exercise, think inhibition. We’d rather shaking.
Glute med is the needed ligamentous muscle if a hip subluxes laterally.
Furniture is made to fit people who are 5’8.
Hard orthotics = overrated. We want a soft heel cup and arch to be used proprioceptively.
“I like to refer to myself as your coach.”
“You can’t work the same muscle in a different position and expect the same outcome.”
“You know I’m going to have to spend some time on this little booger.”
“If you want to give more pelvic instability stretch hamstrings.”
“She trusts me and I make her shake which is all good.”
“PECs cannot breathe to the high moon.”
“Getting neutral is not treatment.”
“Her back needs to go on a holiday.”
“Run with ribs.”
“When you go run, run.”
“We like extension, just not 24 hours a day 7 days a week.”
“If your patients cannot breathe correctly, don’t do a PRI activity. They will fail.”
“Not everyone needs a pair of glasses. Some people need a diaphragm.”
“I’m not a comedian. I’m here to teach you.”
“We’re [the clinician] not in control. We’re just invited to the party.”
“I get excited when I feel my right glute max burn.”
“You gotta get those wisdom teeth pulled.” ~Ron Hruska
By virtue of the dentist I integrate with, the time came. And here are the results.
Zac B.E. (Before Extraction)
So at this point in my life the large HRV gains I initially had were dropping and I was still having some neck tension. Training was feeling so-so.
Test-wise, the videos below show what I look like.
Here’s my squat
And my toe touch.
Upper quadrant tests
And lower quadrant tests
And some cervical movements
My pelvis is consistently neutral and I can shift and squat with the best of ‘em. But I still present with restrictions in my thorax, neck, and mandible (BBC/RTMCC).
These limitations are likely present because of a bony block called wisdom teeth.
As you can see, the maxillary (top side) wisdom teeth limit the excurision of my lateral pterygoids for lateral trusive movements. My hope is by removing these guys I will get access to more frontal plane, which should clean, up my remaining tests.
Operation Extraction: 1/30/15
I enter the room to get prepped for surgery, and the worst possible thing occurs.
Country music is playing.
And I can’t have that!
So I politely ask one of the workers there if we can play something a bit more soothing prior to my surgery.
2pac “I ain’t Mad at Cha” begins playing.
That’s more like it.
I get the IV put in, hear some Juicy by Biggy, and pass out from the Mind Eraser anesthesia. Yes, it was actually called “Mind Eraser”, and yes, I remember nothing.
Like this happening
And definitely not this
But I do remember looking like Marlon Brando for a period of time
What was really cool about the whole experience is how little pain I felt. I probably took 2-3 pain pills at most. I think this is because I was actually excited about having this surgery done, and the reward I was hoping to get far exceeded the nociceptive information I would inevitably receive.
Just goes to show it’s all about threat perception.
Zac A.E. (After Extraction)
I waited to re-measure and assess until 6 weeks later. This way I had to some time to heal and adjust to this new sensory experience. My exercise program basically consisted of squatting, alteranting activity, and mandibular lateral trusion to feel my pterygoids.
The cons are I no longer looking like Marlon Brando, but the pro’s are the mobility gains. Check it out in the vids below.
Here are the standing tests
My upper quadrant tests
Lower quadrant tests
Here are my mandibular movements
And lastly, cervical
Since surgery I’ve been hovering between a right BC and superior T4. I consider myself no longer a TMCC patient because mandibular movement is now fully restored. The thorax position can limit cervical axial rotation.
In terms of how I feel, neck tension has been significantly reduced, especially with jaw movement. The only time I get the tension is when I am training hard or if I am reading/sitting for a real long time.
I also produce a crap-ton more saliva, which comes back to the very first question Ron asked me when I started this process. You don’t know what this stuff will affect.
Consequently, I have noticeably much more phlegm in my saliva and feel way more congested than ever. Sleep quality does not seem as good, as I have generally felt a bit more tired throughout the day.
So what gives? My thought was the wisdom teeth would be the final piece of my PRI quest, but I did not get all the changes I was hoping to get. Was Ron wrong? Did I get less wise for nothing?
The one consistent thing that I am still limited in is the cervical rotation and shoulder horizontal abduction. I am hesitant to perform any pec inhibitory activities because I have been neutral in the past. I don’t want to “stretch” something that doesn’t need stretching.
I look over my 3D CT scan that I got at the dentist office, and one thing stands out. I find my limiting factor:
Note from Zac: This is my first guest post, and to start things up is the one and only Trevor Rappa. Trevor was my intern for the past 9 weeks and he absolutely killed it. Here is his story.
It’s very exciting for me to get to write a guest post for Zac’s blog that I have read so many times and learned so much from. The experience I have had with him over these past 9 weeks has been incredible and I hope to share some of it with all of you that read this.
He challenged me to think critically in every aspect of patient interaction: how I first greet them, which side of them I sit on, the words I use, and how I explain to the patient why I chose the exercises they’ll go home with. All of this was to create a non-threatening environment to help to patient achieve the best results they can.
He also taught me how to educate patients with a TNE approach, incorporate other interventions such as mirror therapy into a PRI based treatment model, and deepened my understanding of the neurologic concepts behind performance.
Therapeutic Neuroscience Education
Perception of threat can lead to a painful experience which will cause a change in behavior. It’s the PT’s role to introduce a salient stimulus to attenuate the perception of threat in order to cause a positive change in experience and behavior (Zac and I came up with that, I really like it).
Pain is not the enemy. Teaching patients that their pain is normal and it doesn’t always mean that they are damaging themselves can be challenging as pain is often the reason patients seek out or are referred to PT. Some of the points we tried to teach patients were
Pain is there to keep you safe, which is good
Pain does not equal tissue injury
No pain, no gain is not what we’re looking for
Discomfort is okay
Knock on the door of pain, don’t try to kick it down
A large part of educating patients is helping them re-conceptualize why they are having pain. Most patients think of pain in terms of a pathoanatomical model (ie tissue abnormality=pain) and this is perpetuated by a lot of members in the medical community. The pathoanatomical language often causes a higher perception of threat and induces greater feelings of being broken, hopeless, and unfixable.
Re-educating the patients that what they are experiencing is normal and teaching them why it is normal helps decrease their perception of threat. We do not want to use language that will make patients more threatened, like telling a 20 year old that they have the spine of an 80 year old (numerous times our patients have been told that by other medical professionals). Getting them out of a mindset that if they move a “faulty tissue” they will make their situation worse is one step in this process.
Regardless of whether the patient is dealing with a more acute injury or one that has become chronic, there are three things we taught each patient that we would do in PT to help decrease some of the sensitivity they may be dealing with. Those three things are movement, space, and blood flow. These three things require the patient to be active in their therapy which gives them control.
Many of the patients with chronic conditions had stopped doing the things they enjoyed. Giving them activities which they can do without perceiving pain, or that can help decrease their pain, shows patients that they do not need to rely on external passive interventions to feel better. Getting patients to believe/understand that they have the control and power to make themselves feel better is one of the most important things a PT can do.
Mirror therapy, sensory discrimination, and PRI
Learning how to use different interventions to help decrease sensitivity and pain was huge for me. We used mirror therapy with different types of patients whether they had chronic pain or were post-surgical. The mirror activities usually started with the patient moving their unaffected limb while watching their affected limb move in the mirror. For example, if you right arm hurts you’d move your left arm while looking at the mirror because it would appear that your right arm is moving. We would progress patients to where they were moving their affected limb behind the mirror while still watching the reflection of their unaffected limb moving in front of the mirror. With the example above, you would still be watching the reflection of your left arm in the mirror making it look like your right arm is moving but would also be moving your right arm behind the mirror. This helped introduce patients to moving a sensitive area without experiencing pain, thus decreasing the threat of movement.
Another intervention I had not used before was sensory discrimination. We used this mostly in our post-surgical or more acute population to help decrease the local sensitivity after an injury and to try de-smudgify (that may or may not be an actual word) their homunculus [note from Zac: Totally is].
Sharp-dull discrimination was used first, then we progressed to two-point discrimination and usually ended with graphesthesia. The progress for patients from not being able to discriminate between sharp-dull to having graphesthesia showed me how powerful the role of the somatosensory homunculus is in the pain experience.
And of course, I learned more PRI from Zac. He challenged me to use more integrated non-manual techniques with patients while also limiting the number of cues I used. This was great because it is very easy for me to over coach these techniques. He also gave me a better understanding of some of the big concepts in PRI, such as neutrality.
Neutrality vs Hypofrontality
Neutral is a huge word in PRI that is often thought of as the end game when in reality it is just the beginning of a PRI treatment. The end goal is to get someone alternating and reciprocal. The idea of neutral always made sense to me as a good goal for performance as “neutral” joint positions is where the greatest force would be able to be produced. Talking to Zac about this he brought up what Bill Hartman Grandpa 🙂 has said: Neutral is a neurologically prefrontal state in which learning can occur, as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is active during tasks that require attention. However, this is not a state you want an athlete performing in.
An active PFC is good when athletes or patients are in rehab because their cerebellum and basal ganglia are learning new movements that can then be used with less activity from higher cortical areas during performance. The movements used during these activities can become reactive after enough learning, practice, and repetition (those 3 things go hand in hand).
During performance or training we would not want an athlete using the higher cortical areas that elicit attention as this would make them slow and inefficient. Instead, we would want them fast and efficient (ie reactive and reflexive). A transient state of hypofrontality allows an athlete to reach a state of “flow”, which Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describes in his book Flow, which is where the highest levels of performance occurs. This would allow the lower reactive (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and reflexive (brain stem) centers of the brain to essentially take over making them fast and efficient.
So from a theoretical neurologic stand point you do not want an athlete in a prefrontal state during performance. Good rehab and programming can help them become alternating and reciprocal through graded exposure and relearning of certain movement patterns in a neutral (prefrontal) neurologic state. Once this foundation is there, power and capacity can be added through training (which Zac talks more about here ). This may allow an athlete to stay alternating and reciprocal during transient states of hypofrontality when performing, not “neutral”.
Another concept that stood out to me from talking with Zac is the difference between extensor tone and extension. Extensor tone is necessary for power production during performance but it does not necessarily mean that the athlete is going into a position of extension. When someone is in extension they limit their degrees of freedom for movement and thus their movement variability. Using extensor tone from a neutral position, for lack of a better term, would allow them to display power while maintaining their potential movement variability (be alternating and reciprocal). This idea was something that made things click for me.
I learned a lot from Zac and want to thank him for all his help and time he spent teaching me. Needless to say, this was an amazing clinical internship for me and I cannot recommend enough that other students should try to get Zac as their CI or for patients to get treated by Zac. He is the real.
And now what everyone has been waiting for… Zac quotes
Help for cueing exercises
“Shakin’ like a polaroid picture”
“We don’t want Fat Joe and the lean back”
“Do you remember the three little pigs? I want you to be the big bad wolf and blow their house down”
“Do you have the big 3? Jordan (L abs), Pippen (L adductor), and Rodman (L glute med)?”
“We like a tight right butt and we cannot lie, the other therapists can’t deny”
“I’ll start calling him Buffalo Bill, cause he’s abducting like crazy”
“We don’t want you to have hamstrings like Goldmember”
Zac after getting his wisdom teeth out, he doesn’t remember saying these things
“I have lateral trusion!”
“Check out this IR” and then he self-tested his own HG IR
“I ain’t got time to bleed”
“Nobody makes me bleed my own blood”
“If you ain’t assesin’ you guessin’”
“There’s 45 miles of nerves in the human body if you put them all in a straight line, but don’t try it at home cause you’ll die.”
“…hmm..interesting” in Bill Hartman Grandpa’s voice
“…sure about that?” in grandpa’s voice
“Her teeth told me she had bunions”
“I don’t know why he told us the same diagnosis five times.”
“Breathing is really important. The research has shown if you don’t do it you will die”
“How about this word, variability. How about this word, salience. How about this word, anti-fragile. How about this word, POTS.”