The Ultimate Guide to Treating Ankle Sprains

A Humdinger No Doubt

 

Ankle sprains. Such a bugger to deal with.

Worse than childbirth, as David Butler might say.

 

Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries seen in basketball. The cutting, jumping, contact, fatigue, and poor footwear certainly don’t help matters.

Damn near almost every game someone tweaks an ankle.

Treating ankle sprains in-game provides quite a different perspective. Rarely in the clinic do we work with someone immediately post-injury. Instead, we deal with the cumulative effects of delayed treatment: acquired impairments, altered movement strategies, and reduced fitness.

The pressure is lower and the pace is slower.

You shed that mindset with the game on the line. You must do all in your power to get that player back on the court tonight, expediting the return process to the nth degree.

I had a problem.

Figuring out the most efficient way to treat an ankle sprain was needed to help our team succeed. I searched the literature, therapeutic outskirts, and tinkered in order to devise an effective protocol.

The result? We had 12 ankle sprains this past season. After performing the protocol, eight were able to return and finish out the game. Out of the remaining four, three returned to full play in two days. The last guy? He was released two days after his last game.

It’s a tough business.

The best part was we had no re-sprains. An impressive feat considering the 80% recurrence rate¹.    Caveats aside, treating acute injuries with an aggressive mindset can be immensely effective.

Here’s how. Continue reading “The Ultimate Guide to Treating Ankle Sprains”

Course Notes: PRI Cervical Revolution REMIX

Note: I made some errors on the first rendition of this blog that were corrected after speaking with Eric Oetter. Courtesy to him, Lori Thomsen, and Ron Hruska for cleaning up some concepts.

Four Months Later

When the Lori Thomsen says to come to Cervical Revolution, you kinda have to listen.

Especially when tempted with soufflé. Ooooooohhh Lawwwwd
Especially when tempted with soufflé. Ooooooohhh Lawwwwd

I was slightly hesitant to attend since I had taken this course back in January. I mean, it was only the 3rd course rendition. How much could have changed?

There's no going back Ron
There’s no going back Ron

 

Holy schnikes! It is simply amazing what four months of polishing can do. It was as though I attended a completely different course. Did I get it all figured out? No. But the clarity gained this weekend left me feeling a lot better about this very complex material.

This is a course that will only continue to get better with time; if you have a chance to attend please do.

Let’s now have a moment of clarity.

Itsyabloig
Itsyabloig

 

Biomechanics 101

The craniocervical region is the most mobile section of the vertebral column.

This mobility allows regional sensorimotor receptors to provide the brain accurate information on occipital position and movement.

The neck moves with particular biomechanics. Fryette’s laws suggest that the cervical spine produces ipsilateral spinal coupling in rotation and sidebending. The OA joint, on the other hand, couples contralaterally.

C2 is the regulator of cervical spine motion; much like the first rib regulates rib cage movement.

C2=1st rib = Nate Dogg (RIP)
C2 = 1st rib = Nate Dogg (RIP)

C2 is also important for the mandible, as it balances the cervical spine during mandibular opening. The reason this occurs is because the mandible and C2 are at the same fulcrum level.

images

 

Pathomechanics 201

Often triplanar motion will decrease amidst progressive respiratory demand or threat. These changes help promote neck stability while simultaneously increasing demand on the mandibular elevators, extraocular muscles, and vestibular system

If these changes occurs long enough, sensory issues may become prominent.

Stability can occur through increased sagittal plane activity in the upper cervical spine and cranium either one of two ways:

  • O on A via posterior cranial rotation
  • A on O via forward head posture

Both strategies attempt to flex the cranium, but both are undesirable if occurring underneath a lost cervical lordosis.

OA hyperflexion is often seen in those who sit in front of monitors for long periods of time. The visual system helps promote stability.

Aka actually sit in your freakin' chair!
Aka actually sit in your flippin’ chair!

OA Hyperextension is an attempt to create an airway. Cranial protrusion may be utilized as a way to open up the airway under stable conditions. This position passively raises the hyoid bone, which often depresses when one uses a mouth-breathing strategy. These individuals rely heavily on the dentition for craniocervical awareness.

Aka get a larger monitor
Aka get a larger monitor, and possibly a haircut.

Of course, these are not the only ways undesirable neck stability can occur.

You might have a stable neck if:

  • You have a narrow palate.
  • You have a cross bite.
  • You have a narrow airway.
Just think if Jeff Foxworthy were a dentist.
Jeff Foxworthy coming to a dental chair near you.

 

Patterned Mechanics 3037

 The TMCC is the foundational polyarticular muscle chain at the neck, with the right side generally more active than the left.

The normal RTMCC pattern presents with the following at the neck:

  • C2-C7 orientation in the transverse and frontal plane to the right, with compensatory rotation and sidebending to the left.
  • The OA joint is sidebent to the right and rotated left as a passive orientation.
Yep, that's you.
Yep, that’s you.

The RTMCC may be present in isolation or with various cranial strains.

A cranial strain may occur if the left SCM sidebends the OA left within the RTMCC pattern. This compensatory movement occurs to attempt to reduce OA rotation and upper cervical strain.

If you weren’t sleeping during the biomechanics section, you will notice that this goes against Fryette’s laws. In order for this compensatory strategy to occur, the right alar ligament and posterior capitis muscle must become lax. This movement does help reduce torsion and compression on the upper cervical segments, but may create a cranial lesion in the process.

This compensatory movement is a precursor to a left sidebending cranial lesion, and this lesion along with others are quite prominent.

According to a 2008 study by Timoshkin and Sandhouse, 72% of individuals have a cranium that is in a sidebend or torsion pattern; with left sidebend and right torsion being the most common.

Of those two cranial strains, the left sidebend will be the most common. Let’s dive into that pattern more.

Using whichever diving face you prefer.
Using whichever diving face you prefer.

 

Left sidebend (LSB)

The LSB lesion is named for the sphenoid’s greater wing position. In this case, the greater wing is high on the right and low on the left. The occiput matches this orientation.

Where these bones will differ occurs about a vertical axis; as the sphenoid externally rotates while the occiput internally rotates.

The mechanical change at the atlas drives this position. The sphenoid just goes along for the ride.

A prime example of this cranial strain would be the lovely Garey Busey.

Though his personality is a bit more right torsion
Though his personality is a bit more right torsion

Right Torsion (RT)

RT’s also have a low left greater wing of the sphenoid, but the big difference is at the sphenobasilar joint.

Since the RT is a progression from the LSB, the occiput will attempt to sidebend right to level occipital position.  Since the sphenoid stays in position, torsion through the sphenobasilar joint occurs.

This twist is driven by the sphenoid as means to create pseudo-facial symmetry via extension.

Lorimer Moseley is actually a perfect example of this type of cranial position, as many facial features are flipped from a LSB face.

For the sake of science, I hope he is not offended.
For the sake of science, I hope he is not offended.

 

This is a Test

The only way to truly determine which cranial strain one has is through imaging, but PRI testing can guide us down a treatment path.

Admittedly, the cervical tests are not the most reliable of the PRI bunch. To attempt to offset this limitation, we shall imply a test battery to determine position.

There are four essential tests in the TMCC algorithm:

  • Cervical extension: Checks cervical lordosis presence; goal is 30-35 degrees.

If limitations are present it is likely that SCM hyperactivity is reducing the normal lordotic curve.

I think of this test as the extension drop test of the cranium. It tells you if you are working with someone who is sagittally lax or not.

  • Cervical axial rotation: Checking C7-T1 rotation, which reflects C2 position. Looking for symmetry at about 30-35 degrees of movement. This test determines the TMCC pattern.

Limitations will be present due to the cervical spine’s compensatory rotation and sidebend to the left. Placing the patient supine on a table rotates the spine further to the left, which places a RTMCC patterned neck in an end-range position. Hence, normally left cervical axial rotation is limited. We would see bilateral limitations in a BTMCC.

When performing this test you want to make sure that you do not give the patient a lordosis, for this can create false negatives.

  • Midcervical sidebending: I think of this test as the great comparer between the cervical spine and the cranium. Looking for symmetry at about 30-35 degrees. This test gives you a frame of reference for our next test.

In the RTMCC pattern, this test is limited to the right secondary to an arthrokinematic block. If the cervical spine is rotated left on the table, the neck cannot sidebend to the right. That’s Fryette’s laws brah!

  • OA sidebending: This test looks at cranial position. Looking for 8-10 degrees bilaterally.

More than 10 degrees of sidebending would indicate alar ligamentous laxity.

A  RTMCC individual would have limited right OA sidebending due to a bony block. In someone with a LSB however, you would have limited L OA sidebending because the left SCM pulls the OA over to the left. A RT could present with just about anything, as pathology is quite prominent in these folks. 

Cranial Destraining

 RTMCC repositioning and retraining goes about the following progression:

Cervical spine → OA joint → Mandible

The neck is the top priority because its mobility maximizes cranial sensory activity.

Moreover, most cranial activities are integrated multi-joint movements. Spending time doing “basic” PRI sets the foundation for one to combine complex movements.

But sometimes that's what you gotta do
But sometimes that’s what you gotta do

Mandibular movement is often normalized by the time the neck is cleared. The reason TMJ mobility may be limited because of craniomandibular discord.

In the RTMCC pattern, the right lateral pterygoid works with the right anterior capitis and right SCM to deviate the temporal bone and mandible to the left whilst the occiput (and sphenoid) are “stuck” in the left sidebend position. In a neutral system, we would expect the occiput and sphenoid to move to the right during this cranial movement. This tonal issue could limit mandibular movement.

Thus, a neutral cranium often restores normal TMJ mechanics. If problems still arise, then mandibular re-education may be necessary.

Sometimes you need a Dentist

 

Must be LVI-trained.
Though not all appreciate occlusion.

Of the two common cranial strains, RTs will most likely need integration.

With normal occlusion, one side of teeth should touch while the other discludes. This alternation creates lateral shifting in both the mandible and the cranium.

The canine teeth act as guides for where the jaw ought to be in space. When canines touch during shifting, molar contact follows as the teeth drop into position. This action is called group function.

Teeth touching is kinda important.
Teeth touching is kinda important.

If group function cannot occur, it is likely that a dentist may need to be involved.

Splint therapy is generally recommended in these cases. More specifically, mandibular splints are the go-to (which I spoke about here and here).

Maxillary splints are generally the devil. These splints tend to increase tongue activity and mandibular clenching to hold the splint in. The one major case that may warrant a maxillary splint is the presence of tori.

Wolff's law at its finest.
Wolff’s law at its finest.

Even if not using PRI splints, there are four essential pieces needed from a dentist:

  1. Don’t lock the mouth into a position.
  2. Move head back and jaw forward with canines.
  3. Feel one side occlude while the other side discludes.
  4. Have group function and anterior guidance between incisors.

Note – anterior guidance is when the incisors touch the molars disclude

 

#Explainocclusion

 You might be wondering how I educate people about this stuff in a nonthreatening fashion. I got this neat little tidbit from the Ronimal:

“Periodontal ligaments are so sensitive that a hair will throw off your gait.” ~ Ron Hruska

Think about that statement the next time you get something stuck in your teeth. Drives you crazy right? If there is something undesirable going on with your teeth, you will know about it in some way. Some output will occur.

Yes, it's called a chiari malformation
Yes, it’s called a chiari malformation

Moreover, think about what occurs at the dentition when stressed. Do you clench? Reducing this muscle over activity by splint therapy introduces a salient stimulus that could reduce the stress response, if the craniocervical region is involved.

Hint: It usually is.

Infamous Ron Quotes

  • “Every single bunion and ACL patient is a TMD patient.”
  • “I love dentistry, but I don’t like dentistry, but I like dentistry.”
  • “You cannot treat a neck if a neck can’t treat itself.”
  • “We are a product of how we move our cranium.”
  • “A bra strap will really mess a tongue up.”
  • “The worst thing you can do to a patient is splint their neck.”
  • “We still have a lot of goniometric minds.”
  • “What good is the polyvagal theory if you don’t understand the neck.”
  • “Don Neumann is the best book for 1% of the population.”
  • “Treatment starts when you appreciate frontal plane.”
  • “How can you treat a TMJ if you can’t control the T?”
  • “The vehicle you drive is not the problem, it’s the path your on.”
  • “A twisted levator is an untwisted neck.”
  • “Hallelujah you have a pattern.”
  • “When you lose your left ab wall the head and neck will pick up the slack.”
  • “You can learn a lot about cognition and personality if you look at a neck.”
  • “You can’t feel CSF flow if you lack a cervical lordosis.”
  • “Make sense out of sense.”
  • “A neck that can’t move will produce a cant.”
  • “Crossbites, pulled bicuspids, and high arches scare me.”
  • “Sedentary lifestyle and screens demand we go straight.”
  • “The pattern is sugar that tastes pretty sweet.”

Course Notes: PRI Interdisciplinary Integration 2015

A Stellar Symposium

Back in April I had the pleasure of finally attending PRI’s annual symposium, and what an excellent learning experience.

The theme this year was working with high-powered, extension-driven individuals.

The amount of interdisciplinary overlap in each presentation made for a seamless symposium. Common themes included the brain, stress response, HRV, resilience, and drive. These are things altered in individuals who are highly successful, but may come at a cost to body systems.

If you work with business owners, CEOs, high-level athletes and coaches, high level positions, straight-A students, special forces, and supermoms, this symposium was for you.

Or a combination thereof
Or a combination thereof

And let’s face it; we are both in this category!

There were so many pearls in each presentation that I wish I could write, but let’s view the course a-ha’s.

The Wise Words of Ron

Ron Hruska gave four excellent talks at this symposium regarding high performers and occlusion. Let’s dive into the master’s mind.

Enter at your own risk. Shizzzaahhhh
Enter at your own risk. Shizzzaahhhh

People, PRI does not think extension is bad. Extension is a gift that drives us to excel. Individuals who have high self-efficacy must often “over-extend” themselves. This drive often requires system extension.

Extension is a consequence, and probably a necessary adaptation, of success.

If this drive must be reduced to increase function and/or alter symptoms in these individuals, we have to turn down the volume knob.

How can we power down these individuals?

  1. Limit alternate choices – These folks take a wide view of a task
  2. Set boundaries – These folks attribute failure to external factors
  3. Making initial tasks successful – So these folks don’t give up at early failures
  4. Objectively measure improvement – This helps motivate people to continue
  5. Establish rhythmic activity that reflects specific set goals – the higher the goals the more likely the positive change.
PRI, we have a bobsled team
PRI, we have a bobsled team

A Tale of Two Forward Heads

We discussed a lot of attaining neutrality at the OA joint. What does that entail?

A: Both occipital condyles centered in the atlas fossa with unrestricted lateral flexion.

What is needed to have that?

  1. 55-60 degrees of cervical extension.
  2. Equal bilateral first rib rotation position.
  3. Centric occlusion with the anterior teeth guiding protrusive movement and canines guiding lateral movement.
  4. Normal maxillary and mandibular teeth contact.
  5. Ability to nasal breathe.
  6. Alternating pelvic capability.
  7. Visual flexibility.
  8. Normal hearing bilaterally.

Lose any one of these and a forward head posture may occur.

The two types of FHP we see include one with the atlas migrating forward with increased cervical flexion and occipital protraction.

Forward-Head-Posture

 

And one in which the atlas migrates backward on the occiput in which excessive upper cervical flexion coupled with lower cervical/upper thoracic hyperextension.

images

With the former’s case, these individuals have a harder time feeling posterior teeth; a loss of frontal plane. When one loses frontal plane, the individual must attempt to increase anterior guidance via extension. Strategies used to do this include tongue thrusting, bruxism, fingernail biting, mouth breathing, clenching, etc. These strategies are protective in nature as they limit potential stress at the TMJ and OA.

Most of the latter include your bilaterally extended individuals. They retrude the atlas to significantly increase cervical stability. This hyperstability allows for dominant performance in the sagittal plane. These individuals may need more visual interventions.

 

She’s a Wise Woman

Dr. Heidi Wise gave one of my favorite presentations of the symposium. She discussed vision’s role in extension-driven individuals.

Vision is the most dominant sensory modality, as it has the ability to override all other senses to redirect attention. To me, this is why vision is such a powerful way to get someone neutral.

Redirection of attention through the visual system occurs through saccades. These eye movements occur 85% of the time our eyes are being used. This is how the visual system detects a salient stimulus.

If visual processes hold someone in an extension pattern, it may become extremely difficult to near-impossible to overcome.

Here is how we start thinking a visual process may be promoting an extension pattern:

  • Those who cannot inhibit extension with traditional floor-up activity.
  • Late-onset (past puberty) or severe near-sightedness.
  • People with extremely good eyesight.
  • Folks who over-focus on objects straight ahead (people who stare).
  • People who walk with purpose (makes me think of my mom in the mall!).
  • High-energy.
Probably more than just a vision patient.
Probably more than just a vision patient.

If someone over focuses (read: nearsighted), eye exploration is minimized. It becomes much harder to notice change, or salience. This is how the visual system can keep someone stuck in a stress response.

What is needed to see close?

  • Increases in acetylcholine and norepinephrine.
  • Reflexive increase in neck/head muscle tension. More so if one must strain to see.

Do this too long, and we can see unfavorable autonomic, visual, and neuromuscular stress.

And guess what visual field research is showing we better attune to? The right side; more specifically, the right upper visual field.

The PRI goal? We want to restore ambient vision in these individuals to process three planes of visual motion.

Here were some of Heidi’s recommendations for how to do so.

  1. Take breaks from a task to move.
  2. Be aware of surroundings on both sides without looking when walking.
  3. Walk slower than usual.
  4. Look around using your eyes independent of your head.
  5. If nearsighted, take glasses off occasionally and “be OK” with things far away being blurry. Don’t strain to see well.
  6. Have top of computer screens at about eye level. Look far from the screen as often as possible.
  7. Close eyes and visualize a large open area that makes you calm.
  8. Minimize time on small, close screens and keep object far from eyes.
  9. Read books over e-readers and keep the book as far away as visually comfortable.
  10. Emphasize peripheral awareness before and after high attention tasks.
  11. Change variable such as sounds or environment during high attention tasks.
  12. Get away from looking in the mirror at movements.
  13. Change lightbulbs to natural daylight.
heidi
And Heidi’s as well

 

Mental Muscle

Dr. Todd Stull provided a lot of neat neuroscience nuggests.

  • Glia purges our brain of waste during sleep.
  • Strongest memories are tied to emotions; more negative than positive.
  • If the limbic system is too active (such as in a threatening environment), prefrontal cortex activity goes way down. You can’t learn as well.
  • Cranial nerves are extremely important in social interaction. Nonverbal cues from these areas can unconsciously affect autonomics.
  • During adolescence (12-25) the right side of the brain and limbic system develop faster than the left and neocortex. This lateralization is why this time period can be so emotion-driven.
  • Face to face interaction is needed to cultivate the nervous system. This is the problem with social media and texting.
  • Dopamine pathways are very active during adolescence; it’s one of the reasons addictions start during this time.
  • Feelings of being overwhelmed are 6 times more common in those who have had concussions.
  • Rehearse making mistakes and how you will come out of them.

He also provided some great patient interaction nuggets that I hope to liberally steal.

  • Keep your eyes on the individual and tell them “it’s great to see you here.”
  • If you are not doing well on a given day – “I don’t feel good today but we’re going to have a good session.”
  • If you are at odds with a patient – “We’ve seemed to come to a roadblock. Would you agree?”
Ya don't say?
Ya don’t say?

 

Optimizing Mindsets 

My big takeaway from psychologist Dr. Tracy Heller’s talk was mindfulness.

Mindfulness is something I am hoping to get more into in the future. She defines it as being aware of your thoughts, emotions, physical sensations, and actions in the present moment without judging or criticizing yourself or your experience.

It’s a big deal to have this capability. Practicing mindfulness has been shown to reduced cortisol, stress, pain, depression, and anxiety; while also improving memory, sleep, and cognitive function.

The way we build mindfulness is basically letting go. I like the analogy that I heard while using Headspace (a great app if you haven’t used it). Imagine your thoughts and feelings as cars in traffic. Your goal is to just watch the cars pass by, not chase them. You want to be present in the moment, as we want in most of life.

And if you can do this in LA you'll put most Tibetan monks to shame.
And if you can do this in LA you’ll put most Tibetan monks to shame.

One option of practicing this is resonant frequency breathing, in which we perform 4.5-7 breath cycles per minute. Let the body breathe on it’s own and let the air come in; using terms such as “let,” “allow,” and “permit.” These are cues I have been using much more with patients and has made a big difference.

 

Dad’s Part

This was easily my favorite part of the symposium (I may be biased since my Dad gave this talk). Bill Hartman blew it out of the park teaching us how PRI applies at the highest level of performance.

The rules change in the performance realm because the patterns are incredibly powerful, effective, and efficient. In some cases we may want them. A perfect example that Bill gave: Usain Bolt

Rarely does he cross midline when he runs, making him the fastest runner on one leg. Do we want to change that? Probably not.

Performance does not equal health. Gymnasts for example, may need to create pathology to perform at a high level. Some people must utilize passive elements to produce greater outcomes. Usain Bolt runs on one leg. Everyone is a case-by-case basis. N=1 forever.

What must occur in the performance and health realm is stress management. Acute stressors with recovery make us antifragile; prolonged stressors reduce variability as an allostatic adaptation.

If one must constantly perform at a very high level, where will they be on this stress dichotomy? Prolonged stressors = reduced variability, sympathetic dominance, and system extension.

Variability helps us anticipate demand. It helps us become better able to cope with specific environments and recover movement function. The only way we can know if movement variability is present is through assessing the musculoskeletal system

 “The state of the musculoskeletal system is the other end of the brain” ~ Bill Hartman

If stressed or threatened, body systems use default reflexive mechanisms to combat threat. The brainstem is much faster than the cortex. As a consequence, variability can be lost.

Attaining increased prefrontal cortex activity allows us to inhibit our default response and increase variability. That’s why mindfulness increases HRV, and that’s why a 90/90 hip lift can alter body position.

And why juggling gets Bill neutral. Chainsaws preferred.
And why juggling gets Bill neutral. Chainsaws preferred.

To better manage stress, we must train. Training is a progressive desensitization of threatening input to allow an athlete to perform at adaptive potential with optimal variability and without fatigue.

The higher performance level required, the more difficult it becomes to get neutral. This is what happens during functional overreaching. You gain higher performance output during this timeframe because the sympathetic nervous system and HPA axis are on overdrive.

Applying Bill’s principles along the training and rehab continuum, rehab requires neutrality and variability to rebuild a failed stress tolerance. The amount needed in performance realm will depend on how (in)variant one’s sport is.

The Wild World of Combat

Dallas Wood and Zach Nott work with in a military population, and it was fascinating showing how they mitigate the extension necessary for their clientele to perform. They guys collect a lot of data, and the fun factoid was that about 80-90% of their individuals are PEC and bilateral BC (surprise surprise).

They showed us a very cool auditory case. They had a dude with a PEC/BBC presentation with a history of ear trauma and tinnitus. When they blocked his left ear the gentleman was completely neutral.

A viable treatment in probably more cases than you'd think.
A viable treatment in probably more cases than you’d think.

Treatment underwent reducing the tinnitus by implementing a hearing aid that uses various white/pink noises to slowly reduce tinnitus. Not sure exactly how it works, but this was exciting to hear about (ha). I look forward to learning where PRI takes auditory integration.

 

C’est Fini

 So there you have it. I already signed up for next year’s symposium because this one was so much fun. I look forward to more of the consistently fantastic content that PRI provides. Learn on!

 

Course Notes: Pelvis Restoration Reflections

Pelvises Were Restored

It was another great PRI weekend and I was fortunate enough to host the hilarious Lori Thomsen to teach her baby, Pelvis Restoration.

Lori is a very good friend of mine, and we happened to have two of our mentees at the course as well. Needless to say it was a fun family get-together.

Lori was absolutely on fire this weekend clearing up concepts for me and she aptly applied the PRI principles on multiple levels. She has a very systematic approach to the course, and is a great person to learn from, especially if you are a PRI noob.

Here were some of the big concepts I shall reflect on. If you want the entire course lowdown, read the first time I took the course here.

 Extension = Closing Multiple Systems

 This right here is for you nerve heads.

There's a few things going on here.
There’s a few things going on here.

It turns out the pelvis is an incredibly neurologically rich area.

What happens if a drive my pelvis into a position of extension for a prolonged period of time?

I’ve written a lot about how Shacklock teaches closing and opening dysfunctions with the nervous system. An extended position here over time would increase tension brought along the pelvic nerves. Increased tension = decreased bloodflow = sensitivity.

We can’t just limit it to nerves however, the same would occur in the vasculature and lymphatic system. We get stagnation of many vessels.

Perhaps we need to think of extension as system closure; a system closing problem. Flexion will be the solution to open the system.

Not when you can utilize system flexion
Not when you can utilize system flexion

Synchronized Diaphragms

Pausing after an exhalation gives diaphragms time to ascend. Diaphragmatic ascension maximizes the zone of apposition (ZOA). The better ZOA we have, the less accessory musculature needed to take an adequate breath.

The two important ZOAs needed in this course are at the thoracic and pelvic diaphragms. We want to build synchronicity between these two diaphragms.

The way we do that is through the pelvic inlet.

Dat inlet yo
Dat inlet yo

The inlet links and adequately positions these two diaphragms via internal obliques and transversus abdominis (IO/TA).

To determine how this occurs, we must look at how breathing affects musculature.

This part here was a huge lightbulb moment for me. Muscle lengthening correlates with inhalation, and muscle shortening correlates with exhalation. So to create a stretch in areas you wish to lengthen, you may want to inhale, and to increase muscle contractility, you may with to exhale.

[Note: This is one reason in lifting exhalation is during the concentric phase and inhalation is during the eccentric phase?]

Now lets apply this concept to the pelvic inlet in an extended system. Let’s say the left innominate is forward (a LAIC pattern). My left IO/TA on would be eccentrically lengthened and in a state of inhalation. The left thoracic and pelvic diaphragms would be tonically active and form a v-shape.

I call this superior gluteal migration
I call this superior gluteal migration

This dyssynchrony explains why certain pelvic and thoracic tests correlate. The LAIC pattern suggests that I would not be able to adduct my left hip.

At the pelvis, this would occur because I have a “long” left anterior outlet and “short” posterior outlet.

The outlet and the thorax reflect one another. In this case, my anterior outlet is equivalent to the ipsilateral anterior chest wall and my posterior outlet is equivalent to the posterior mediastinum.

Guess what the tests will look like? I will have good left apical expansion and limited left posterior mediastinum expansion. I can’t adduct my left thorax or abduct my right thorax, much like I can’t adduct my left hip or abduct my right hip. These tests look at the same thing the pelvic tests do.

Only the tests have changed.
Only the tests have changed.

The Definitive Word on PRI Squatting

 We can look at one’s ability to actively synchronize the thoracic and pelvic diaphragms by one’s ability to squat.

The functional squat test is an excellent way to show if one is capable of maximal pelvic diaphragm ascension and can shut off extensor tone. It also is a test to see if one has a patho-compensatory pelvic floor; for if you can squat but can’t adduct your hips, you gotz problems.

Here is what the functional squat test is not: a position to go under load in the weight room.

The above was straight out of Lori’s mouth. So to all the people who talk smack about the PRI squat, your answer is above. It’s not looking at the same thing as a max effort back squat.

Done.

It's not that you don't know how to squat. It's that you don't know how to poop.
It’s not that you don’t know how to squat. It’s that you don’t know how to poop.

Here’s how to test it.

 

Sitting is Hahhhd

In PRI land, sitting is the most challenging position to be in.

Yeah uh no.
Yeah uh no.

Why? Because there are less points which one can reference. Sitting unsupported requires proprioception exclusively on your ischial tuberosities. Success here relies on alternating and reciprocal muscle recruitment. If I don’t have this, I will extend.

Some Quick Postural Eyes

Lori is a great at predicting how dynamic movements will look on the table. Here were a couple things that stood out to me in this regard, as well as a couple other random things.

  • Leg whipping means an individual likely has a femur stuck in adduction.
  • Patho-compensatory people usually have more narrow hips. Could possibly be more common in males for this reason.
  • People who lean to one side in gait need a glute med.
  • If one cramps during an exercise, think inhibition. We’d rather shaking.
  • Glute med is the needed ligamentous muscle if a hip subluxes laterally.
  • Furniture is made to fit people who are 5’8.
  • Hard orthotics = overrated. We want a soft heel cup and arch to be used proprioceptively.

Lori-isms 

  • “I like to refer to myself as your coach.”
  • “You can’t work the same muscle in a different position and expect the same outcome.”
  • “You know I’m going to have to spend some time on this little booger.”
  • “If you want to give more pelvic instability stretch hamstrings.”
  • “She trusts me and I make her shake which is all good.”
  • “PECs cannot breathe to the high moon.”
  • “Getting neutral is not treatment.”
  • “Her back needs to go on a holiday.”
  • “Run with ribs.”
  • “When you go run, run.”
  • “We like extension, just not 24 hours a day 7 days a week.”
  • “If your patients cannot breathe correctly, don’t do a PRI activity. They will fail.”
  • “Not everyone needs a pair of glasses. Some people need a diaphragm.”
  • “I’m not a comedian. I’m here to teach you.”
  • “We’re [the clinician] not in control. We’re just invited to the party.”
  • “I get excited when I feel my right glute max burn.”
  • “You normal human being you.”
What if the hurricane was named Lori?
What if the hurricane was named Lori?

It’s the Salient Detection System, Stupid

I feel your [insert whatever output your brain decided to use to defend against an excessive stressor].
I feel your [insert whatever output your brain decided to use to defend against an excessive stressor].
 Can you tell the difference among pain, depression, and pleasure?

From a neurotransmitter perspective, the answer is no (see here and here).

How is it that three very different states can be so neurologically similar?

I feel the commonality that the nervous system purports reflects a system that responds to stimuli that are deviations from the norm. We call these instances by this word:

Salient.

Doesn’t that make your loins quiver?

I know mine do
I know mine do

Let’s discuss how it works. Here’s your recommended reading.

1. The pain matrix reloaded: a salience detection system for the body (Thanks Sigurd)

2. Stress signalling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function (Thanks Son)

3. From the neuromatrix to the pain matrix (and back)

[Note: Most of this article is an amalgamation of the three articles that I cited above and my own thoughts. Rather then cite every sentence AMA-style, I’ll give the credit to these guys above. Read ‘em and figure out how I put this together. For those who are sticklers for proper reference formatting, the type I am using is KMA-style citation.*]

The Pain Neuromatrix Myth

Hate to break it to you, but pain ain’t so special. Here’s why.

Mr. Rogers lied to you pain.
Mr. Rogers lied to you pain.

If you follow modern pain science, you may often hear the term pain neurosignature or neurotag. This phrase is meant to describe a cluster of brain areas that are active during a pain experience.

Information that can contribute to a pain experience travels to several areas. Some of the big players are the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (all the talk about the homunculus), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insula to name a few. These bad boys are consistently active when pain from a nociceptive stimulus occurs. Hence, these brain areas are considered to be part of the pain neurotag present in us all.

However, this theory has a couple problems. First off, there is no brain area that exclusively responds to nociceptive stimuli. That includes the aforementioned locations.

In fact, these areas have been shown to simultaneously activate by the following sensory inputs: nociceptive, somatosensory, auditory, and visual. This variety can be explained by the vast array of wide-dynamic range neurons; neurons that carry multiple inputs to cortical areas.

The suggestion: the supposed “pain neuromatrix” can respond to a wide variety of sensory inputs. I don’t think the input matters much at all. This fact takes the quote “nociception is neither necessary nor sufficient for a pain experience” to a completely different level. I like this instead:

 “Any input is not necessary, but sufficient for a pain experience.”

As if pain wasn’t complex enough.

It doesn't matter what input you had!
It doesn’t matter what input you had!

[Interesting side note: nociceptive specific neurons have been shown to be active when a threatening visual stimulus occurs. How many of you folks who treat pain are asking about vision? Maybe there is something to that PRI after all.]

So how is the pain neuromatrix demolished? Because of the first point I mentioned in this post. We could also see a wide variety of outputs that neurologically appear similar to pain occur. The neurosignature is not always exclusive to pain.

Let’s rephrase our quote again.

“Any input is not necessary, but sufficient for any output.”

What would constitute a change in output that resembles what was once thought as the pain neuromatrix? Here is where salience comes into play.

She said the word salient and I...
She said the word salience and I…

The Salient Detection System

A salient stimulus is something that stands out relative to the background. The intensity is irrelevant; the key is how different the input is. These inputs can occur within the body or the environment.

An elephant in a room is salient. A room full of elephants is not.

Unless you are a republican here.
Unless you are a republican here.

But here is a more scientific example. One study mentioned in the articles used a monotonous nociceptive laser stimuli interspersed with a novel nociceptive stimuli of various physical properties. Larger activity in the “pain matrix” areas occurred when the novel stimulus was applied, regardless of how intense this was.

 Deviation from norm is what is necessary for this system to activate. Let’s upgrade our phrase again:

 “A salient input is necessary for an altered output.”

Being able to respond to salient inputs helps one adapt to environmental and body changes. This is why nociception can be powerful, as it is a very salient stimulus.

Because there are no brain areas that respond exclusively to nociceptive stimuli, the brain areas typically involved in “the pain matrix” are more likely involved in an all-encompassing salient detection system. The outputs that occur are the brain’s best guess at how to adapt to this new stimulus. As to why one output may occur over another is likely beyond our current knowledge base.

Unfortunately sometimes your brain has similar accuracy to Batman being riddled by the Riddler
Unfortunately sometimes your brain has similar accuracy to College Humor’s Batman.

It Comes Down to Threat

If you haven’t read before, I believe that stress/threat that goes beyond our system’s capacity (i.e. is salient) is ultimately what leads to many of the outputs we see clinically.

Let’s see this process in action. Let’s suppose you are exposed to a threatening salient stimulus.

When a severe stressor occurs, the prefrontal cortex (PFC, our decision-making center) decreases its activity and the amygdala takes over. The amygdala likes predictable behaviors, so habitual strategies will run to combat this stressor. This is the stuff you are good at.

My go-to when I'm in danger.
My go-to when I’m in danger.

If the PFC is active, we consider that top-down control. When exposed to a threatening salient stimulus, bottom-up processing via the amygdala is more dominant.

Stress and inflammatory hormones flooding the system compound this shift, which strengthen the amygdala and weaken the PFC.

Getting Stuck in the Cycle

Let’s suppose you are exposed to a threatening salient stimulus and are fortunate enough to survive. Your brain will ask the following question:

“How do I prevent that from happening again?” ~ Your brain

The major players here are dopamine and norepinephrine.

And these neurotransmitters play from far and wide
And these neurotransmitters play from far and wide

Whatever output was successful in threat attenuation will be positively reinforced by the amygdala. Our reward neurotransmitter known as dopamine increases its presence when a stressor is applied. Outputs used during that stressful situation will be captured and rewarded for occurring. Over time, this process can contribute to chronic outputting (pain, addiction, PTSD, etc).

If pain fear-avoidance reduces threat, reward. If anxiety keeps you protected, reward. If snorting a mountain of coke keeps you happy-go-lucky, reward.

My choice of course.
Where do you think all that blog money goes?

To me, the above outputs are the same thing. The outputs that become chronic depend on if maintaining chronicity ensures one’s survival.

Norepinephrine, our neurotransmitter that gives us that adrenaline rush, initially drives us sympathetically to combat that threat. However, in chronic stress environments such as those mentioned above, norepinephrine will begin to fire to irrelevant stimuli. These changes can now make inputs that were once nonthreatening threatening.

Going from Vicious to Delicious

So we are stuck in a bottom-up amygdala-happy cycle. How do we get out of it? PFC is the hero we deserve so we can hope to stimulate top-down activity.

But not the one we need right now.
But not the one we need right now. Can never have enough Batman references

We have a problem though. When we have a chronic x, y, or z, working memory over-attends to inputs that perpetuate said output. It takes over our working memory. Individuals stuck in a chronic cycle have a hard time getting out of this state because the output occupies the mind and is rewarded by dopamine.

There’s only one way to break the cycle: Salience.

A new, favorably salient input is necessary to encourage top-down processing. This is how our rehabilitation process begins.

Introducing a favorably salient input is only step one. This piece provides a window of opportunity for learning a new strategy, as the previous threat is reduced.

That’s why manual therapy must be incorporated with exercise. That’s why achieving neutrality is only step one, that’s why therapeutic neuroscience education stops benefitting after 3 months. That’s why a joke is less funny after the first time its told.

These examples are the same. All are novel stimuli that divert attention for a brief moment in time.

And they won’t work forever.

It doesn't seem that long until you grown...2 Batman + 2 OutKast references might equal the best blog yet.
It doesn’t seem that long until you grown.

[Side note: 2 Batman + 2 Outkast references = best blog yet]

When the system is flipped to top-down, one must introduce variability, capacity, and/or power to better attenuate future threatening inputs. When an individual’s sweet spot of these qualities is found, better stress management occurs. Those salient stimuli that push someone into an unfavorable bottom-up cascade are no longer salient.

The standouts just become part of the noise.

Last Remarks

We now have a neurological framework for which we can treat individuals who are under threat, and the common link among all these folks is salience. Recognizing what salient detection means, and creating better body-spatial environments to combat threatening salient inputs, may be a major factor in reducing some of the chronic conditions we see.

Now that’s a cool system…

Pin for sale soon at zaccupples.com
Pin for sale soon at zaccupples.com

 

 

 

*KMA = Kiss my ass**
** Granny would be proud

 

 

 

 

9 weeks with Bane, I mean Zac…Oops Sorry Wrong CI

Only one wears glasses but both are alternating and reciprocal warriors.
Only one wears glasses but both are alternating and reciprocal warriors.

Note from Zac: This is my first guest post, and to start things up is the one and only Trevor Rappa. Trevor was my intern for the past 9 weeks and he absolutely killed it. Here is his story.

It’s very exciting for me to get to write a guest post for Zac’s blog that I have read so many times and learned so much from. The experience I have had with him over these past 9 weeks has been incredible and I hope to share some of it with all of you that read this.

He challenged me to think critically in every aspect of patient interaction: how I first greet them, which side of them I sit on, the words I use, and how I explain to the patient why I chose the exercises they’ll go home with. All of this was to create a non-threatening environment to help to patient achieve the best results they can.

He also taught me how to educate patients with a TNE approach, incorporate other interventions such as mirror therapy into a PRI based treatment model, and deepened my understanding of the neurologic concepts behind performance.

Therapeutic Neuroscience Education

Perception of threat can lead to a painful experience which will cause a change in behavior. It’s the PT’s role to introduce a salient stimulus to attenuate the perception of threat in order to cause a positive change in experience and behavior (Zac and I came up with that, I really like it).

Pain is not the enemy. Teaching patients that their pain is normal and it doesn’t always mean that they are damaging themselves can be challenging as pain is often the reason patients seek out or are referred to PT. Some of the points we tried to teach patients were

  • Pain is there to keep you safe, which is good
  • Pain does not equal tissue injury
  • No pain, no gain is not what we’re looking for
  • Discomfort is okay
  • Knock on the door of pain, don’t try to kick it down

A large part of educating patients is helping them re-conceptualize why they are having pain. Most patients think of pain in terms of a pathoanatomical model (ie tissue abnormality=pain) and this is perpetuated by a lot of members in the medical community. The pathoanatomical language often causes a higher perception of threat and induces greater feelings of being broken, hopeless, and unfixable.

Re-educating the patients that what they are experiencing is normal and teaching them why it is normal helps decrease their perception of threat. We do not want to use language that will make patients more threatened, like telling a 20 year old that they have the spine of an 80 year old (numerous times our patients have been told that by other medical professionals). Getting them out of a mindset that if they move a “faulty tissue” they will make their situation worse is one step in this process.

Regardless of whether the patient is dealing with a more acute injury or one that has become chronic, there are three things we taught each patient that we would do in PT to help decrease some of the sensitivity they may be dealing with. Those three things are movement, space, and blood flow. These three things require the patient to be active in their therapy which gives them control.

Many of the patients with chronic conditions had stopped doing the things they enjoyed. Giving them activities which they can do without perceiving pain, or that can help decrease their pain, shows patients that they do not need to rely on external passive interventions to feel better. Getting patients to believe/understand that they have the control and power to make themselves feel better is one of the most important things a PT can do.

Mirror therapy, sensory discrimination, and PRI

Learning how to use different interventions to help decrease sensitivity and pain was huge for me. We used mirror therapy with different types of patients whether they had chronic pain or were post-surgical. The mirror activities usually started with the patient moving their unaffected limb while watching their affected limb move in the mirror. For example, if you right arm hurts you’d move your left arm while looking at the mirror because it would appear that your right arm is moving. We would progress patients to where they were moving their affected limb behind the mirror while still watching the reflection of their unaffected limb moving in front of the mirror. With the example above, you would still be watching the reflection of your left arm in the mirror making it look like your right arm is moving but would also be moving your right arm behind the mirror. This helped introduce patients to moving a sensitive area without experiencing pain, thus decreasing the threat of movement.

Numerous RCTs have shown this to be true.
Numerous RCTs have shown this to be true.

Another intervention I had not used before was sensory discrimination. We used this mostly in our post-surgical or more acute population to help decrease the local sensitivity after an injury and to try de-smudgify (that may or may not be an actual word) their homunculus [note from Zac: Totally is].

Sharp-dull discrimination was used first, then we progressed to two-point discrimination and usually ended with graphesthesia. The progress for patients from not being able to discriminate between sharp-dull to having graphesthesia showed me how powerful the role of the somatosensory homunculus is in the pain experience.

And of course, I learned more PRI from Zac. He challenged me to use more integrated non-manual techniques with patients while also limiting the number of cues I used. This was great because it is very easy for me to over coach these techniques. He also gave me a better understanding of some of the big concepts in PRI, such as neutrality.

Neutrality vs Hypofrontality

Neutral is a huge word in PRI that is often thought of as the end game when in reality it is just the beginning of a PRI treatment. The end goal is to get someone alternating and reciprocal. The idea of neutral always made sense to me as a good goal for performance as “neutral” joint positions is where the greatest force would be able to be produced. Talking to Zac about this he brought up what Bill Hartman Grandpa 🙂 has said: Neutral is a neurologically prefrontal state in which learning can occur, as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is active during tasks that require attention. However, this is not a state you want an athlete performing in.

An active PFC is good when athletes or patients are in rehab because their cerebellum and basal ganglia are learning new movements that can then be used with less activity from higher cortical areas during performance. The movements used during these activities can become reactive after enough learning, practice, and repetition (those 3 things go hand in hand).

During performance or training we would not want an athlete using the higher cortical areas that elicit attention as this would make them slow and inefficient. Instead, we would want them fast and efficient (ie reactive and reflexive). A transient state of hypofrontality allows an athlete to reach a state of “flow”, which Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describes in his book Flow, which is where the highest levels of performance occurs. This would allow the lower reactive (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and reflexive (brain stem) centers of the brain to essentially take over making them fast and efficient.

So from a theoretical neurologic stand point you do not want an athlete in a prefrontal state during performance. Good rehab and programming can help them become alternating and reciprocal through graded exposure and relearning of certain movement patterns in a neutral (prefrontal) neurologic state. Once this foundation is there, power and capacity can be added through training (which Zac talks more about here ). This may allow an athlete to stay alternating and reciprocal during transient states of hypofrontality when performing, not “neutral”.

Another concept that stood out to me from talking with Zac is the difference between extensor tone and extension. Extensor tone is necessary for power production during performance but it does not necessarily mean that the athlete is going into a position of extension. When someone is in extension they limit their degrees of freedom for movement and thus their movement variability. Using extensor tone from a neutral position, for lack of a better term, would allow them to display power while maintaining their potential movement variability (be alternating and reciprocal). This idea was something that made things click for me.

In summary…

I learned a lot from Zac and want to thank him for all his help and time he spent teaching me. Needless to say, this was an amazing clinical internship for me and I cannot recommend enough that other students should try to get Zac as their CI or for patients to get treated by Zac. He is the real.

Zac Cupples and Iron Sheik same thing
Zac Cupples and Iron Sheik same thing

And now what everyone has been waiting for… Zac quotes

Help for cueing exercises

  • “Shakin’ like a polaroid picture”
  • “We don’t want Fat Joe and the lean back”
  • “Do you remember the three little pigs? I want you to be the big bad wolf and blow their house down”
  • “Do you have the big 3? Jordan (L abs), Pippen (L adductor), and Rodman (L glute med)?”
  • “We like a tight right butt and we cannot lie, the other therapists can’t deny”
  • “I’ll start calling him Buffalo Bill, cause he’s abducting like crazy”
  • “We don’t want you to have hamstrings like Goldmember”
Hamstrings like Goldmember = POTS
Hamstrings like Goldmember = POTS

Zac after getting his wisdom teeth out, he doesn’t remember saying these things

  • “I have lateral trusion!”
  • “Check out this IR” and then he self-tested his own HG IR
  • “I ain’t got time to bleed”
  • “Nobody makes me bleed my own blood”

Other favorites

  • “If you ain’t assesin’ you guessin’”
  • “There’s 45 miles of nerves in the human body if you put them all in a straight line, but don’t try it at home cause you’ll die.”
  • “…hmm..interesting” in Bill Hartman Grandpa’s voice
  • “…sure about that?” in grandpa’s voice
  • “Her teeth told me she had bunions”
  • “I don’t know why he told us the same diagnosis five times.”
  • “Breathing is really important. The research has shown if you don’t do it you will die”
  • “How about this word, variability. How about this word, salience. How about this word, anti-fragile. How about this word, POTS.”

Trevor Rappa is a student at Columbia University and will graduate this May with his DPT. He has clinical experience with Lori Thomsen at the Hruska Clinic and with Zac Cupples at East Valley Spine and Sports. Upon graduation, he will be working at Peak Performance in NYC. You can get in touch with Trevor by email at trevor.rappa@gmail.com or on twitter @TrevorRappa.

 

Favorable Inputs: A Model for Achieving Outcomes

One Hot Model 

Louis Gifford’s Topical Issues in Pain has an amazing amount of quality information, and has really inspired many thoughts.

I’ve only read book 1 thus far, but this book can generate material to expand upon much like Supertraining does for fitness writers.

Or what Rakim did for your favorite rappers.
Or what Rakim did for your favorite rappers.

I’m sure many of you folks have seen this picture before.

Bet you never saw this pic of (your) mom
Bet you never saw mom like this

Gifford called this schematic the “Mature Organism Model” (MOM) to illustrate how pain works.

Inputs from the tissues and the environment travel up the spinal cord to the brain. The brain processes these inputs and samples information from itself to generate a corresponding output. These outputs are perceived as new inputs which reset the cycle.

MOM was of course used to illustrate the three pain types (read here and here), but it is so much more than that.

The MOM is a schematic for how the nervous system works.

How do you like how that shit works?
How do you like how that shit works?

Any input that is processed by the brain may or may not lead to outputs of altered physiology and/or behavior.

Viewing (your) MOM (ha) made me think a lot about working with individuals who are dealing with a threat response. How exactly are we helping these folks?

I’ve come to believe that we do not treat outputs. At best we can only provide inputs that we hope are exchanged for new, desirable outputs. In patient care, we are hoping to alter perceived threat. We attenuate threat by giving an individual favorable inputs, which we hope leads to favorable behavior and physiological changes.

Let’s look at what these favorable inputs are by looking at MOM a bit more in-depth.

An I'll be the motherlover
Yes, I am a motherlover.

The Three Inputs

Deal with it CS Lewis
Best shot at winning Natalie Portman’s heart…deal with it CS Lewis

The nervous system can receive information from body tissues, the environment, and itself. Therefore, these are the areas in which we shall provide favorable inputs.

The three input types that can favorably affect the nervous system are:

  1. Therapeutic Interventions
  2. Therapeutic Interactions
  3. Therapeutic Reframing

These inputs can be provided by the individual themselves, someone else, or a foreign object. All three will be needed to some degree, but some will be needed more than others depending on the goal. Let’s dive further.

And now I give away the entire post.
And now I give away the entire post.

Therapeutic Interventions 

This input occurs by providing information through tissue receptors. Input types will include most conventional and alternative medicines and performance training.

The primary things we are looking to change with these inputs are:

  • System variability – The range at which a system can act
  • System capacity – The volume a system can perform with.
  • System power – The intensity a system can perform with.

Life is a balance between these three system components, and the degree to which a system must have these components is tailored to an individual’s needs. (ps, my Dad is going to talk about this much better than I here).

Since I am assuming most of my readership is in the movement business, we can look at the movement system.

Movement variability is the ability to move through full ranges of motion actively and passively in three planes. Variability in the movement system follows a bell curve, with movement rigidity for our hypomobile folks and pathological movement variability for our hypermobile folks.

 variability

Most conventional therapies that aim to improve mobility and motor control are typically dealing with movement variability. To me, the best system for managing movement variability is PRI, as it is the only one that looks at one’s ability to move well in three planes.

Movement capacity would be how long one can perform before fatigue. Think of any type of training that gets you to do something longer (e.g. aerobic conditioning) as capacity training. In the PT realm, I see graded exposure the way Butler, Louw, and other pain science advocates espouse as building capacity. This training methodology is no different from your favorite conditioning methods.

Movement power would be increasing the force produced in a task. Think weight training and the like.

Therapeutic Interactions

 The target input here is the individual’s environment, and I would argue that this is the most important, and sadly under-discussed, input that a clinician utilizes.

This input’s goal is to create an environment that allows for desired outputs to occur.

If you are a clinician treating someone in pain, you are going to be friendly, funny, empathetic, and an excellent listener (and do stuff I wrote here). Your clinic may have calming colors and scents, and you may want to boot out family members that stress your client out.

Or maybe the whole family...Forever.
Or maybe the whole family…Forever.

If you are a coach getting someone strong, you’ll probably want a bunch of like-minded clients working together getting amped up and playing “my mother never loved me” music.

Aka every training session with Lance Goyke.
Aka every training session with Lance Goyke.

If you are an individual who lives in a stressful environment, you might change that input by leaving that stressful environment, changing jobs, moving to Arizona, etc.

Therapeutic Reframing

Here we are providing an input that affects the brain’s self-sampling; the mindset. Knowledge is power. The most common discipline that utilizes this input is psychology.

In the movement realm, this input is where therapeutic neuroscience education fits in. This methodology expunges old, deleterious thoughts while simultaneously providing the individual with new, nonthreatening thoughts. This exchange can reduce threat from other inputs.

We provide favorable inputs this way anytime we learn something. Every time you read something educational you are creating new inputs for the brain to sample.

Overlapping Inputs 

"But Zac, what about..." I'm getting to that.
“But Zac, what about…” I’m getting to that.

Categorizing an input depends on primary intent, but there are several instances in which inputs overlap. We should categorize these inputs via primary, secondary, tertiary intent. For example:

  • Putting a hand on someone while they are crying (Primarily therapeutic interaction as you provide an environment for healing; secondarily therapeutic intervention because the touch may provide a calming effect on the nervous system through cutaneous receptors).
  • Telling a funny story to educate someone (Primarily therapeutic education because that individual is being provided new beliefs; secondarily therapeutic interaction by making the client laugh).

Last Remarks

This favorable input model provides some insight as to how our clinical/coaching processes can affect the outcomes we seek. While we may have our strengths, creating desired adaptations requires excellence with all three of these inputs.

The best exercise program in the world will not be effective if a client does not does not like you just as your niceness will not outdo your outdated treatments.

Though I predict lobotomys will make a comeback in 2015.
Though I predict lobotomys will make a comeback in 2015.

Which of these three inputs do you excel at? Which need work? Comment below.

 

Course Notes: Cantrell’s Myokin Reflections

Third Time’s a Charm

Mike Cantrell was in my neighborhood to teach Myokinematic Restoration by the folks at PRI.

And it was a beautiful day in the neighborhood
And it was a beautiful day in the neighborhood

And I couldn’t resist.

This is the third time I have taken this course, a course I feel I know like the back of my hand, yet Mike gave me several clinical gems that I want to share with y’all.

This post is going to be a quick one. If you want a little more depth, take a look at my previous myokin posts (See James Anderson and Jen Poulin). Or better yet, take a PRI course for cryin’ out loud.

Hip Extension, We Need That Yo.

 Sagittal plane is your first piece needed to create triplanar activity. Since this is a lumbopelvic course, we look at getting hip extension as high priority.

If I am unable to extend my hip, here’s what I could try to use to do it:

  • Back
  • SI joint compression
  • Anterior hip laxity
  • Gastrocnemius and soleus.

We use two tests to see if we have hip extension: adduction drop (modified ober’s test) and extension drop (Thomas test).

The adduction drop will look at your capacity to get into the sagittal and frontal plane, and the extension drop test will look at your anterior hip ligamentous integrity.

A positive extension drop is a good thing if you are in the LAIC pattern. It means you didn’t overstretch your iliofemoral and pubofemoral ligaments. Well done! The reason why this test is not a hip flexor length test has to do with the femur’s position. In the pattern, the femur is positioned in a state of internal orientation secondary to an anteriorly tipped and forwardly rotated pelvis.

Due to this orientation, the femur must be externally rotated during performance of an extension drop test. This would put the psoas on slack. If you still have a positive test, then we know the anterior hip capsule is intact because that’s the only thing holding the hip up.

Heeeeeyyy...Adduction drop until the femurs fall off.
Heeeeeyyy…Adduction drop until the femurs fall off.

Dem Cows

We spent a good portion of the day learning about gastrocs. In the LAIC pattern, the right gastroc runs the show as a hip extender AND hip external rotator.

The slight inversion action that the gastrocneumius performs helps pick up the transverse plane slack that the right glute max is malpositioned to do so. This is why the right calf is usually larger than the left.

Your calves run the show if:

  • There is an early heel rise in gait
  • There is a heel whip
Coming to a PT clinic near you.
Coming to a PT clinic near you.

Adduction Lift Epiphany

If you don’t know what the Hruska Adduction lift test (HAdLT) is, read THE Jen Poulin’s myokin piece then come back to this.

Or just watch the test.

This test’s pinnacle is the 5/5, to which gives us ground to become alternating and reciprocal warriors.

The Alternate Warrior
The Alternate Warrior

However….

Just because you can hit 5/5 on both sides does not mean you can alternate well.

I was a prime example in class. Mike had me demonstrate my HAdLT in class, to which I easily hit 5’s on both sides.

Mike: “Showoff.”

Despite my quest towards neutrality, I have not been able to keep good thorax and neck positioning. Thanks wisdom teeth.

Dick
Jerk

So Mike checked my right shoulder internal rotation, to which I had about 70 degrees. Way better than the previous 10 or so degrees I started at.

Then Mike had me perform the left HAdLT, which pushed me into my right hip.

Shoulder internal rotation worsened to 30 degrees.

He then pushed me into my left hip with the HAdLT.

Shoulder internal rotation now 90 degrees.

Even though I can crush the lift test, I do not alternate well because I lose position at other areas.

To truly be an alternating and reciprocal warrior, one must be able to perform alternating activities without losing position anywhere in the body.

Why Can’t I Swing my Right Arm?

In many folks with a LAIC/RBC pattern, you will notice that there is minimal right arm swing. You would think that the right arm would be activity secondary to right lateralization and hemisphere dominance. Not necessarily so though.

Arm swing is dependent on trunk rotation. If the trunk can rotate, then the arms can swing.

In the pattern, it becomes very difficult to rotate the trunk to the right, which mean there is no need for right upper extremity extension. So how about instead we just plaster the arm the side? Not a bad idea.

Bad idea.
Bad idea.

Crazy Good Cues

To close, Mike is a cueing machine. I picked up three new favorites that we’ve been playing around quite a bit in the clinic.

  • Press heels down on a chair to decrease TFL. Don’t use a ball because the TFL will attempt to adduct the femur via internal rotation. Then slowly add the ball.
  • Sigh upon exhalation if you have a patient who is rectus-dominant.
  • Plantarflex the first big toe to feel the left IC adductor in standing.

Cantrellisms

  • “Orthopedic symptoms are the result of bad neurology.”
  • “Good posture compromises respiratory dynamics.”
  • “Think before you stretch.”
  • “Stretching is the equivalent of kicking a horse while pulling on the reins.”
  • “99% of righties have a left thing.”
  • “Doesn’t matter what the diagnosis is.”
  • “Give me sagittal or give me death.”
  • “Most strength deficits are motor control deficits.”
  • “Total arc depends on what moment in gait you are in.”
  • “My goal is to take that exercise away from you.”
How I envision Mike's first Cervical Revolution course.
How I envision Mike’s first Cervical Revolution course.

Course Notes: Advanced Integration and PRC Reflections

I Passed

I officially became a Jedi this past December after retaking Advanced Integration and going through the Postural Restoration Certified (PRC) testing.

Both were a wonderful experience in terms of learning new concepts and fine-tuning old ones.

Since I have retaken this course, I will not go into huge detail in terms of the material covered (if you want detail, read last year’s AI notes here, here, here, and here).

Instead, I will reflect on a few concepts that really hit home for me (No, i’m not saying what we did at the PRC)!

Enjoy.

Hanging with the Jedi Masters
Hanging with the Jedi Masters

 Extension is Evolution

Extension is what allowed our brains to develop because it brought us to two legs.

The big extenders: psoas, paravertebrals, lat, QL, capitis

Extension given us more but comes with a cost. As we continue to extend, we increase system demands. Extension will likely be a necessary adaptation to live in the world we are creating.

I’m scared to see what the future looks like.

Batman circa 2070. Complete with myopia, anxiety disorder, and constipation...Not sure why I said the same thing three times (sorry, wrong course).
Batman circa 2070. Complete with myopia, anxiety disorder, and constipation…Not sure why I said the same thing three times (sorry, wrong course).

Position

Refers to triplanar position of the body. Neutrality is the state of rest and transition zone from one side to the other. We want this most of the day, but can’t expect this to occur all day. We want to establish a rhythm in and out of neutrality in alternating and reciprocal function.

The alternating and reciprocal rhythm has alternate appendages on either side of the body. When the left leg is in front, the right leg should be back.

In right stance, the appendages take the following positions:

  • Legs – right back, left forward
  • Arms – right forward, left back
  • SCMs – Right back, left forward
  • Lateral pterygoids – right forward, left back
  • Extra-ocular muscles – right back, left forward

In left stance, the above positions are reversed.

Oftentimes one or many of these appendicular positions is flipped. This flipping is when you have defensive patterning (LAIC/RBC/RTMCC/PEC).

Aka Phil Collins-ing
Aka Phil Collins

Position is More than the Body

Position extends beyond body states. Position reflects who you are.

There was a table regarding human asymmetrical concepts present in this year’s manual that listed characteristics of neutral versus PEC individuals.

It blew me away because it very well matched my personal transition; especially comparing how I am now to when I was a young lad. Check this out.

Neutral PEC
Movement/motion Rest/locked
Loosening Binding
Arbitratiness Order
Accident Law
Live, create, play Work, formal, rigid
Lead/risk taking Follow
Freedom Constraint

I’ll probably be in jail painting pretty pictures once my wisdom teeth are pulled.

 Septums and Chambers

Septums are partitions in our bodies that separate chambers. For example, the diaphragm is a septum between the thoracic and abdominal chambers. These septums stiffen with flexion and loosen with extension.

We want septums to be tight, as septal tightness allows for chambers to expand, shift, and rotate. When a chamber can’t expand, it shall become loose.

Yesh indeed
Yesh indeed

If you want a tight septum you must be able to flex. Flexion is what gives one access to shift and rotate.

The normal respiratory cycle alternates between chamber and exoskeletal dominance. Upon inhalation, the exoskeletal system becomes unstable, but chamber pressure increases. When exhalation occurs, exoskeletal stability increases and chamber pressure decreases.

Thinking about this alternation clinically, one who lives in a constant state of inhalation (i.e. extension) will stay upright via chamber pressure. Stability is passive. On the flipside, one who spends more time exhaling (i.e. flexion) must keep upright stability via active elements

Poop Talk

The rectum is shaped somewhat like a cone to which a pressure gradient for defecation occurs by gravity and peritoneal cavity shape.

Our natural human asymmetry is necessary to mobilize abdominal contents. Our iliums act as pumps for the rectum, shifting contents back and forth with each step we take.

If we only have access to one phase of gait though…things get shitty.

Puns all day
Puns all day

Create with Your Arms

Hands should be free to reach and create, but when we are in a protective pattern, inability to reference the ground through our legs leads us to find reference elsewhere.

Like JOSPT, the extension of references.
Like resorting to JOSPT, the extension of references.

In some individuals, the arms can act as a reference center to hold us upright. This occurs most notably when we lack transverse plane activity. If you see these behaviors, think need for transverse plane:

  • When one writes, they push the pen into the table as opposed to gliding it across paper.
  • Nail biting.
  • Hands in pockets (guilty as charged).
  • Fist clenching.

When you have people who cannot create with their arms, being able to feel the ground is one of the best things you can do. Ground push-off is what reduces the reference needs of the arms.

It’s Not Illegal for your Right Ab Wall To Engage

One of the biggest mistakes I made was losing a right zone of apposition (ZOA).

Big mistake
Big mistake

A slight right ZOA is necessary when creating right apical expansion. The LAIC/RBC/RTMCC pattern dictates the ribs on the right are closed down. Airflow ought to be used to open up these ribs.

However, if I lose the ZOA on the right by letting my ribs flare and over-externally rotate, the right ribs will stay compressed. All that will be stretched is the right ab wall.

Conclusion: exhale and keep the ribs down and in on both sides. Then upon inhalation, a stretching sensation should be felt in the right intercostals. You won’t take in much air.

It is Illiegal to Overflex

We don’t want turtle humps, as this would be the same as creating excessive kyphosis in standing.

Instead, what we want is appropriate kyphosis via posterior mediastinum expansion. Get a ZOA, keep the ZOA, then inhale.

Mirrors are Cool

We learned some neat tricks you can do with a mirror. The mirror takes away visual reference by disassociating what is being seen from what is being felt.

This strategy is especially useful for people who can’t find and feel muscles on one side but can on another. Check out the video below to see an example.

Vision

Public service announcement: When getting your eye exam, ask your optometrist to make sure that you are not overcorrected and that your eyes work together or are balanced. These changes alone will make visual information coming into your brain less threatening for the system.

Foot Fun 

I came with a new appreciation of the subtalar joint. It’s a triplanar ball and socket-like torque absorber that creates pronation and supination.

This rotational force is not always occurring by the leg muscles however. In the closed chain, the opposite hip swinging forward creates supination in the foot. The effect is like a ratchet (twister is the pelvis, stationary end is the lower extremity).

The first helpful visual on zac.cupples.com
The first helpful visual on zac.cupples.com

This rotational component is one possible reason why many orthotic therapies can fail. A foot orthotic must be able to return the entire lower extremity to the center of the frontal plane (i.e. neutral).

Contrary to the haterz, orthotics will not weaken the foot. What they are made to do is change proprioceptive inputs that can have an effect on motor learning. Orthotics can allow one to find and feel muscles they may have not felt before.

It’s a different sensory experience, just like anything you wear is.

Even though PRI likes its orthotics, you may not always need shoes. Sometimes you can gain greater proprioceptive feedback to sense the floor barefoot. It’s going to be person dependent.

The verdict? Wear many different shoes and go shoeless occasionally. Give your dogs variable sensory inputs.

Infamous Ron Quotes

  • “If you’ve got rhythm you’ve got a diaphragm.”
  • “You should be moving so sinuses can drain snot.”
  • “If your gut is moving the bowels in your lungs are moving.”
  • “You have a center of your body…And I’m going to do this a lot…But it’s not the center of your body.”
  • “You have to handle the big G in some way.”
  • “What is this guy nuts? I am nuts.”
  • “Do something to become alive.”
  • “Wear different shoes everyday and you’ll probably poop.”
  • “If you cannot exhale you are probably dead.”
  • “Is your septum tight? Mine is.”
  • “If you don’t own yourself you can’t be kind.”
  • “I gave you these tests just so you would wake up.”
  • “It’s cool to be twisted.”
  • “If you suck at twister you can’t uncoil.”
  • “I like to break the law once in a while.”
  • “If you are going to do PRI, underbreathe.”
  • “Pain distorts where you are at.”
  • “Gosh, all my patients are snakes.”
  • “Quadratusitis. It preceded ebola.”
  • “The more references you have the less obese you will be.”
  • “Curvatures run the show.”
  • “Really? We’re going to fight to move a joint through a range?”
  • “Leave the body alone unless you really have to do something.”
  • “Can you imagine me in black spandex? Or a penguin?”
Well, not the penguin I guess...
Well, not the penguin I guess…

Lori-isms

  • “I have her in good shoes. She knows I have an attitude.”
  • “That old bald guy this morning…”
  • “Oh she’s shaking like a leaf.”
And Lori can make leaves shake quite vigorously :)
And Lori can make leaves shake quite vigorously 🙂

Cantrellisms

  • “I’m not afraid to say I don’t know.”
  • “These type A patients, and I don’t mean Hong Kong Taipei.”
  • “Neutrality is nothing. You need to be able to work with it.”
  • “It’s not illegal for your right ab wall to engage.”
  • “No! I’m sorry, just trying to find the floor on the left side.”
Cuz sometimes ya just don't.
Cuz sometimes ya just don’t.

Great James Quotes

  • “You want to know why? Cuz Ron happens.”
  • “Extension is not bad if you can manage air and chains.”
  • “You can train everything but you don’t want to overtrain discord.”
  • “If you can’t trunk rotate you can’t ZOA incorporate.”
I really need to start selling shirts...
I really need to start selling shirts…

 

 

The Post Wonderful Time of the Year: 2014 Edition

And That’s a Wrap

It’s that time of the year that we get to look back and reflect and what posts killed it (and which bombed).

It seems as though my fine fans be on a pain science kick this year, and rightfully so. It’s some of the best stuff on the PT market right now. It’s definitely a topic I hope to write about more in the coming year, and one I will be speaking on at this year’s PRC conference.

But without further ado, here are the top 10 posts of 2014.

10. Treatment at the Hruska Clinic: PRI Dentistry and Vision

Lift scores 6/5 with the Bane mask on. #alternatingandreciprocalwarrior
Lift scores 6/5 with the Bane mask on. #alternatingandreciprocalwarrior

Going through the treatment process as a patient has really upped my game in terms of knowing when to integrate with my patients. It has also been a life-changing experience for my health and well-being. Learn how they did it for me.

9. Course Notes: THE Jen Poulin’s Myokinematic Restoration

She's a myokinematic beast!
She’s a myokinematic beast!

So much fine tuning occured the second time around. I love how Jen acknowledged the primitive reflex origin of the patterns, as well as fine tuning both lift tests. She’s an excellent instructor (and fun to party with)!

8. Treatment at the Hruska Clinic: Initial Evaluation

Producing so much saliva
Producing so much saliva

The start of my alternating and reciprocal saga. Made for one of the most fascinating evaluations I have ever experienced. Ron Hruska is otherworldly.

7. Course Notes: PRI Postural Respiration

Chiari malformation waiting to happen.
Chiari malformation waiting to happen.

I love a good foundational course taught by the Ronimal. You always get a few easter eggs that allude to higher level courses and concepts. A must-take course.

6. Course Notes: PRI Craniocervical Mandibular Restoration

Ron looks even better in person with the meat suit.
Ron looks even better in person with the meat suit.

One of the most powerful and humbling courses I have ever been to. Ron goes all out on this course, as it is his baby. What dental integration can do to a system under threat is a concept that I hope is further explored in medicine. We can’t do it alone folks.

5. The End of Pain

Still verklempt by the overwhelmingly positive response.
Still verklempt by the overwhelmingly positive response.

This post marked a shift in my thought process and a realization of the possibilities that an integrated health system can accomplish. I have high hopes for our profession, and feel excited that an original post had so many views.

4. Course Notes: PRI Pelvis Restoration

A good group to learn from and with.
A good group to learn from and with.

It seems that with each PRI course you take you go another layer down the rabbit hole. Pelvis is a great course to link up Myokin and Respiration; especially with Lori and Jesse at the helm.

3. Course Notes: Dermoneuromodulation

Diane is bullseye with her neuroscience.
Diane is bullseye with her neuroscience.

Couple the best manual therapy explanation I have come across and a gentle technique and you get a rock solid course. The only downside is that now Diane has tarnished any other manual therapy course for me, as I can’t rationalize any other explanatory model given.

Fine by me.

2. Course Notes: Therapeutic Neuroscience Education

Stayed hungry to learn ever since this course.
Stayed hungry to learn ever since this course.

I love Adriaan’s practical application of pain education to patients, and he is one of the best speakers in the biz. There’s a reason why I am hosting him again next year.

1. Course Notes: Explain Pain

A legend
A legend

A great neuroscience course, a great practical course, and getting to learn from a PT legend? Sign me up.

Game Over!

And that marks the last post of 2014. Which were your favorites? Which are you hatin’ on? Comment below and let’s hope to even better content in 2015!

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