Chapter 2.1: Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization: Developmental Kinesiology: Breathing Stereotypes and Postural Locomotion Function

This is a chapter 2.1 summary of “Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders” by Leon Chaitow. You’re Writing About DNS???!!??! Yes, I am. Pavel Kolar and crew actually contributed to quite a few chapters in this edition, and this one here was overall very well written. Believe it or not, it even had quite a few citations! Why they don’t cite many references in their classes is beyond me, but that’s another soapbox for another day. Onward to a rock-solid chapter. Developmental Diaphragm En utero, the diaphragm’s origin begins in the cervical region, which could possibly have been an extension of the rectus abdominis muscle.  As development progresses, the diaphragm caudally descends and tilts forward. When the child is between 4-6 months old, the diaphragm reaches its final position. Throughout this period, the diaphragm initially is used for respiratory function only. As we progress through the neonatal period (28 days), we see the diaphragm progress postural and sphincter function. The diaphragm is integral for developing requisite stability to move. Achieving movement involves co-activation of the diaphragm, abdominal, back, and pelvic muscles. This connectivity assimilates breathing, posture, and movement. If this system develops properly, we see the highest potential for motor control. The largest developmental changes in this system occur at 3 months. Here we see the cervical and thoracic spine straighten and costal breathing initiate. 4.5 months show extremity function differentiation, indicating a stable axial skeleton to which movement may occur. Further progression occurs at 6 months. Here costal breathing is

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Chapter 1: What are Breathing Pattern Disorders?

This is a chapter 1 summary of “Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders” by Leon Chaitow. It’s Been A While I know it has been a while for some Therapy Notes (©™®#zacistheshizzy), but I decided to revisit some Chaitow as I read his new edition. The chapters have changed quite a bit so far, and many new things have been added. Here is the updated chapter one. A Lotta History Hyperventilation disorders have been through the ringer, and to this day are hardly diagnosed. Some of the biggest classifications in my eyes arrived in 1908-09 from phsyiologists Haldane, Poulton, and Vernon. These fellows classified symptoms of overbreathing to include: Numbness Tingling Dizziness Muscular hypertonicity. This symptom cluster occurred with respiratory alkalosis. In 1977, Lum, Innocenti, and Cluff developed assessment and treatment programs for breathing disorders in the UK, which spearheaded breathing disorder literature. Despite these scientific advancements, many physicians do not diagnose hyperventilation as a legitimate problem. Some of these patients even go so far as to being accused as malingering. Hearing this problem is quite unsettling, as I am seeing more and more people who overbreathe; and possibility correlating, more and more people with chronic pain. A future post is in order to show how I think the two are connected. Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD) and Symptoms So many symptoms could occur with BPDs. The most extreme of these symptoms is hyperventilation syndrome, defined by the following: Breathing in excess of metabolic requirements. Reducing CO2 concentrations in the blood below

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The Post Wonderful Time of the Year: Top Posts of 2013

The Best…Around Time is fun when you are having flies. It seems like just yesterday that I started up this blog, and I am excited and humbled by the response I have gotten. Hearing praise from my audience keeps me hungry to learn and educate more. I am always curious to see which pages you enjoyed, and which were not so enjoyable; as it helps me tailor my writing a little bit more. And I’d have to say, I have a bunch of readers who like the nervous system 🙂 I am not sure what the next year will bring in terms of content, as I think the first year anyone starts a blog it is more about the writing process and finding your voice. Regardless of what is written, I hope to spread information that I think will benefit those of you who read my stuff. The more I can help you, the better off all our patients and clients will be. So without further ado, let’s review which posts were the top dogs for this year (and some of my favorite pics of course). 10.  Lessons from a Student: The Interaction This was probably one of my favorite posts to write this year, as I think this area is sooooooo under-discussed. Expect to be hearing more on patient interaction from me in the future. 9) Clinical Neurodynamics Chapter 1: General Neurodynamics Shacklock was an excellent technical read. In this post we lay out some nervous system basics, and

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Treatment of Shredded Cheese of the Hip: A Case Report and Rant

A Long Day I officially eclipsed my longest work day ever. Started seeing patients at 7:30 am and finished training my last client at 10 pm. So exhausting, but the bright side is my new schedule prevents me from waking up that early ever again! Hooray for sleeping in…sort of. I figured while I had some time in the airport before my next course, I would write a little something about a patient I evaluated right before my lunch break on this long day. Needless to say, I didn’t get much of a break. Her Story This lovely lady is a nurse with a history of chronic left hip pain. She has predominately been treated surgically via labral repairs and muscle reattachment. Her most recent symptom exacerbation involved putting on her socks about a month prior. She heard a pop as she bent over and could not walk. She initially saw two ortho docs. One specializes in total hips, the other in scopes.  Since she was not appropriate for a total hip, this doc referred this lady to his associate. After some imaging was done, she found out that she could not have surgery because she had several muscle tears. Or in the language that the doctor used: “I have nothing to work with. Your hip is shredded up like cheese.” This lady knew no other treatment but surgery, and hearing this news was devastating for her. Thoughts of a brutish life and an end to her fulfilling job flooded

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Course Notes: FMS Level 2

Mobility, Stability, and the Like I recently attended the FMS Level 2 course after rocking the home study. In my quest to take every con ed course known to man, I got into the functional movement people because the idea of improving movement over isolation exercise interests me. I find the way they build up to the patterns very logical, namely because they liberally use PNF and developmental principles; and they do so quite eloquently. But really, I wanted to go to this class so I could meet and learn from Gray Cook. And his segments did not disappoint. While I may not agree with everything he says, he is a very brilliant man and knows movement. The only disappointment I have to say about this course was that I did not get enough Gray and Lee. I would say I probably saw them teach 30% of the time, with another FMS instructor just running us through their algorithms. I am sorry, but if you are going to advertise Gray Cook and Lee Burton as the instructors, then I want Gray and Lee instructing me! A lot of these exercises were review for me, but there were definitely some tweaks that I liked a great deal. I think if you are new to more motor control-based exercises, this course is great for you. Just make sure you are taking it from Gray and/or Lee. Why Screen? The FMS is predominately used to manage risk and prioritize exercise selection. They look

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Chapter 15: In Conclusion

This is a chapter 15 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. The Goal The goal of movement retraining is to create authentic unconscious movement at acceptable levels. We can develop many methods to achieve our goals, but working under sound principles is paramount. Some of the principles Gray advocates include: Focusing on how we move. Look to movement to validate or refute your intervention. Movement is always honest. When designing a movement program, we must operate under the following guidelines: Separate pain from dysfunctional movement patterns. Starting point for movement learning is a reproducible movement baseline. Biomechanical and physiological evaluation do not provide a complete risk screening or diagnostic tool for comprehensive movement pattern understanding. Our biomechanical and physiological knowledge surpass what we know about fundamental movement patterns. Movement learning and relearning follows a hierarchy fundamental to the development of perception and behavior. Corrective exercise should not be rehearsed outputs. Instead, it should be challenging opportunities to manage mistakes on a functional level near the edge of ability. Perception drives movement behavior and movement behavior modulates perception. We should not put fitness on movement dysfunction. We must develop performance and skill considering each tier in the natural progression of movement development and specialization. Corrective exercise dosage works close to baseline at the edge of ability with a clear goal. The routine practice of self-limiting exercises can maintain the quality of our movement perceptions and behaviors and preserve our unique adaptability that modern conveniences erode. Some things cannot be

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Movement Chapter 13: Movement Pattern Corrections

This is a chapter 13 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. Back to the Basics Mobility deficits ought to be the first impairment corrected. Optimizing mobility creates potential for new sensory input and motor adaptation, but does not guarantee quality movement. This is where stability training comes in. In order for the brain to create stability in a region, the following ought to be present: Structural stability: Pain-free structures without significant damage, deficiency, or deformity. Sensory integrity: Uncompromised reception/integration of sensory input. Motor integrity: Uncompromised activation/reinforcement of motor output. Freedom of movement:  Perform in functional range and achieve end-range. Getting Mobility There are 3 ways to gain mobility: 1)      Passively: Self-static stretching with good breathing; manual passive mobilization. 2)      Actively: Dynamic stretching, PNF. 3)      Assistive: Helping with quality or quantity, aquatics, resistance. Getting Stability In order to own our new mobility, we use various stability progressions to cement the new patterns. There are three tiers in which stability is trained: 1)      Fundamental stability – Basic motor control, often in early postures such as supine, prone, or rolling. 2)      Static stability – done when rolling is okay but stability is compromised in more advanced postures. 3)      Dynamic stability – Advanced movement. We progress in these stability frames from easy to further difficult challenges. Assisted → active → reactive-facilitation/perturbations Since stability is a subconscious process, we utilize postures that can challenge this ability while achieving desired motor behavior. We can also group the various postural progressions into 3 categories: 1)      Fundamental

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Movement Chapter 10: Understanding Corrective Strategies

This is a chapter 10 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. Mistakes, I’ve Made a Few When we are talking corrective exercise design, people often make 4 mistakes: 1)      Protocol approach: Exercise based on category. Problem – 1 size fits all. 2)      Basic kinesiology: Target prime movers and some stabilizers. Problem – fails on timing, motor control, stability, and movement. 3)      Appearance of functional approach – Use bands and resistance during functional training. Problem – If the pattern is poor, adding challenges to it can increase compensation. There is also no pre-post testing. 4)      Prehabilitation approach – Prepackaged rehab exercises into conditioning programs as preventative measures to reduce injury risk. Problem – Design is based on injuries common to particular activities as opposed to movement risk factors. There are also certain mistakes that are often made when utilizing the FMS and SFMA: 1)      Converting movement dysfunction into singular anatomical problems. 2)      Obsessing over perfection in each test instead of identifying the most significant limitation/asymmetry. 3)      Linking corrective solutions to movement problems prematurely. The overarching rule is to address these movement deficiencies first, as we do not want to put strength or fitness on top of dysfunctional movement.   The Performance Pyramid When designing an exercise program, we look for three areas to improve performance: Movement, performance, and skill.   It is important that program design is based on the individual’s needs and has these qualities in a hierarchal fashion. For example, if one performs excellent on functional performance

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Movement Chapter 9: Analyzing the Movements in Screens and Assessments

This is a chapter 9 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. While I have broken up these sections into patterns, much of what Gray talks about does not involve the patterns themselves, but are still good points to know. Ergo, much like the book itself, this post may seem a little disjointed 🙂 The Deep Squat One’s inability to squat is not considered a single problem. Instead, a disconnect is present between the body and the brain in the squatting pattern. Our brain sees things in patterns, and the squatting pattern essentially gets smudged. Before performing the squat as an exercise, we must first groove an optimal movement pattern. One interesting point regarding the squat is that as an exercise it is often a top-down based movement. However, when we learn to squat in development, the movement occurs bottom-up. So one way to train the squat is by starting from the bottom of the squat and working to standing. This method ensures full mobility to perform a full deep squat. To relate the SFMA to the squat pattern, Gray is very clear about not training the squat if one cannot touch his or her toes. Hurdle Step and Single Leg Stance These two movements simultaneously test mobility and stability of both legs. Oftentimes in these patterns you will see a high-threshold strategy (HTS), in which a hyper-protective core response occurs. Research demonstrates that this stabilization strategy can cause poor motor control to occur. These tests also are basic

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Movement Chapter 8: SFMA Assessment Breakout Descriptions and Flowcharts

This is a chapter 8 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. What to Look For The SFMA breakouts are utilized to determine if one’s movement deficiencies have a mobility or stability origin. There are further possibilities in each of these categories. It Could Be a Mobility Problem There are two subsets of mobility problems that include tissue extensibility dysfunction (TED) and joint mobility dysfunction (JMD). From here, we can break it down even further in each subset. Here are some potential TEDs Active/passive muscle insufficiency Limited neurodynamics (they said neural tension; come on Gray!) Fascial tension Muscle shortening Hypertrophy Trigger points Scarring/fibrosis And here are some potential JMDs Osteoarthritis/arthrosis Single-joint muscle spasm/guarding Fusion Subluxation Adhesive capsulitis Dislocation It could be a Stability Problem These issues are also known as stability or motor control dysfunction (SMCD). Most conventional therapies would treat these complaints by strengthening the stabilizers, but this is problematic. When something works reflexively, how can we train something volitionally and expect changes? To train these muscles we must focus on proprioceptive and timing-based training. There are several examples of SMCD problems. Motor control dysfunction. High threshold strategy. Local muscle dysfunction/asymmetry. Mechanical breathing dysfunction. Prime mover or global muscle compensation behavior or asymmetry. Poor static stability, alignment, postural control, asymmetry, and structural integrity. Poor dynamic stability, alignment, postural control, asymmetry, and structural integrity. Relatedness Mobility and stability can influence one another. If I were to lose mobility at one segment, motor control can be distorted at nearby segments.

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Movement Chapter 7: SFMA Introduction and Top-Tier Tests

This is a chapter 7 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. Intro The SFMA’s goal is to assess functional capabilities. This system is based on Cyriax differentiation and grading principles. Instead of describing things as strong, weak, painful, or painless; the following descriptors are utilized: Functional nonpainful (FN): Unlimited movement and able to complete a breath cycle at end-range. Called the dead end. Functional painful (FP): Called the marker, reassessed. Dysfunctional nonpainful (DN): Limited, restricted, impaired mobility, stability, or symmetry. Labored breathing with movement also implicates this choice. Called the pathway, where treatment occurs. Dysfunctional painful (DP): Called the logical beehive because we do not know if pain is causing poor movement or vice versa. It is an unreliable place to work unless acute situations. SFMA corrective and manual therapy lie in treating the FP’s and DN’s. The order at which things are treated also matters, so the order listed below for the top tier tests is also typically where treatments should hierarchically begin. Cervical spine patterns (CSP) Upper extremity patterns (UEP) Multi-segmental flexion (MSF) Multi-segmental extension (MSE) Multi-segmental rotation (MSR) Single leg stance (SLS) Overhead deep squat (ODS) We then operate the SFMA in the following fashion:

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Movement Chapter 5: Functional Movement Systems and Movement Patterns

This is a chapter 5 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. In this chapter, Gray outlines the interconnectedness of the tests and outlines all of the different breakouts. The movements will be demonstrated in later chapters. FMS There are seven movements with different clearing examinations. 1)      Deep squat 2)      Hurdle step 3)      Inline lunge 4)      Shoulder mobility 5)      Active straight leg raise (ASLR) 6)      Trunk stability pushup 7)      Rotary stability. The first three movements are often called the big 3, as they are functional movements that check core stability in three essential foot positions. The remaining four are considered fundamental movement patterns.  Often these patterns are attacked before the first three. These screens can also be broken up into those that check symmetry and asymmetry: Symmetrical patterns Deep Squat Trunk stability pushup. Asymmetrical patterns Hurdle step Inline lunge Shoulder mobility ASLR Rotary stability. The way we work the FMS is by first attacking asymmetrical patterns before straight patterns, and primitive patterns before functional patterns. The FMS is scored on a four point ordinal scale with the following scoring criteria: 3 – Complete pattern 2 – Complete pattern with compensations/deviations 1 – Incomplete pattern 0 – Painful pattern. There are also three clearing tests that are either positive or negative for pain. 1)      Impingement clearing test (shoulder mobility) 2)      Prone pressup (trunk mobility) 3)      Posterior rocking (rotary stability) The FMS works by creating several filters to catch for compensations and problems. 1)      Pain – Signal to a problem. 2)     

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