Movement Chapter 5: Functional Movement Systems and Movement Patterns

This is a chapter 5 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. In this chapter, Gray outlines the interconnectedness of the tests and outlines all of the different breakouts. The movements will be demonstrated in later chapters. FMS There are seven movements with different clearing examinations. 1)      Deep squat 2)      Hurdle step 3)      Inline lunge 4)      Shoulder mobility 5)      Active straight leg raise (ASLR) 6)      Trunk stability pushup 7)      Rotary stability. The first three movements are often called the big 3, as they are functional movements that check core stability in three essential foot positions. The remaining four are considered fundamental movement patterns.  Often these patterns are attacked before the first three. These screens can also be broken up into those that check symmetry and asymmetry: Symmetrical patterns Deep Squat Trunk stability pushup. Asymmetrical patterns Hurdle step Inline lunge Shoulder mobility ASLR Rotary stability. The way we work the FMS is by first attacking asymmetrical patterns before straight patterns, and primitive patterns before functional patterns. The FMS is scored on a four point ordinal scale with the following scoring criteria: 3 – Complete pattern 2 – Complete pattern with compensations/deviations 1 – Incomplete pattern 0 – Painful pattern. There are also three clearing tests that are either positive or negative for pain. 1)      Impingement clearing test (shoulder mobility) 2)      Prone pressup (trunk mobility) 3)      Posterior rocking (rotary stability) The FMS works by creating several filters to catch for compensations and problems. 1)      Pain – Signal to a problem. 2)     

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Movement Chapter 4: Movement Screening

This is a chapter 4 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. What Be the Goal? Movement screening’s goal is to manage risk by finding limitations and asymmetries via two strategies; 1)      Movement-pattern problems: Decreased mobility and stability in basic movements. 2)      Athletic-performance problems: Decreased fitness. The FMS razor, akin to Occam’s razor, is to determine a minimum movement pattern quality before movement quantity and capacity are targeted. Movement patterns are lost by the following mechanisms: Muscular imbalance. Habitual asymmetrical movements. Improper training methods. Incomplete recovery from injury. Ideally, the FMS would be part of the basic tests performed when one is looking to participate in sport. Prior to any athletic engagement, a medical exam is performed to clear someone to participate. This exam is often followed by performance and skills tests. Gray feels that the FMS belongs between these two tests, as there is an obvious gap from basic medical screening to high performance. It is not to say that we must only train movement patterns. Rather, all the above qualities can be trained in parallel. The real goal is to manage minimums at each level and make sure improving one does not sacrifice quality at the others.

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Movement Chapter 3: Understanding Movement

This is a chapter 3 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. You Down with SOP? Unlike many other areas, movement does not have a standard operating procedure and is thus very subjective. Since movement is the foundation for all activity, it is important that we develop some type of standard for good movement. Changing Compensations Movement compensations are often unconscious, thereby making these patterns difficult to be cued away.  It may be the case that less threatening movements and corrective exercise could be utilized to change undesired patterns. When designing exercise, it is important to make them challenging as opposed to difficult. Difficulty implies struggling, whereas challenges are what test one’s abilities. Anyone can make something difficult, but not all can challenge. Function of the FMS and SFMA The goals of the functional movement systems are as follows: 1)      Demonstrate if movement patterns produce pain within accepted ranges of movement. 2)      Identify those without pain that are at high injury risk. 3)      Identify specific exercises and activities to avoid until achieving the required movement competency. 4)      Identify the best corrective exercise to restore movement competency. 5)      Create a baseline of standardized movement patterns for future reference. The difference between the FMS and SFMA is that the FMS assesses risk whereas the SFMA diagnoses movement problems. The FMS operates in the following manner: 1)      Rates and ranks nonpainful movements based on limits and asymmetries. 2)      Identifies pain. 3)      Identifies lowest ranking or most asymmetrical patterns; most primitive pattern if

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Movement Chapter 2: Anatomical Science Versus Functional Science

This is a chapter 2 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. Funky Muscles There are anatomically two basic types of muscles; shunt and spurt. Shunt muscles compress and produce structural integrity because the distal attachment is far from the moving joint. Spurt muscles produce movement because the distal attachment is close to the axis of rotation. While these two muscle types are present, they can vary depending on the function performed. For example, if we perform a movement in the closed chain, the spurt and shunt roles become reversed. Focusing on a single muscle group causes us to lack understanding of the supporting matrix behind superficial muscle action. Muscle function depends on body position and joint in action. We can see this point illustrated in Lombard’s paradox, which involves the coactivation of hamstrings and quadriceps when performing a sit to stand. These muscles are antagonistic to one another at their respective joints, yet movement is produced. The resultant effect is the quads and hamstrings becoming global stabilizers. Muscle activity is task specific, therefore Gray purports four types of muscles: 1)      Global Stabilizers: Multi-joint muscles contracting to produce stability and static proprioceptive feedback. 2)      Global Movers: Multi-joint muscles that produce movement and dynamic proprioceptive feedback. 3)      Local Stabilizers: Deep segmental muscles (1-3 segments) that produce stability and static proprioceptive feedback. 4)      Local Movers: Single joint muscle that produce movement and dynamic proprioception. These different muscle types require different training modalities.  The example given is stabilizer muscles. These muscles cannot

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Movement Chapter 1: Introduction to Screening and Assessment

This is a chapter 1 summary of the book “Movement” by Gray Cook. Intro This chapter’s central point, and for that matter the whole book, is that movement needs to standardized just like all other therapeutic and performance measures. Movement is fundamental to who we are. Despite movement being at our center, we continually classify patients and clients by body region. Unfortunately through this reductionism, much is lost. We cannot measure parts and expect that to give us an adequate picture of the whole. Screening Before we begin training, it is advocated that movement be screened to facilitate an optimal training environment. The screen will determine movement as one of the following three areas: 1)      Acceptable 2)      Unacceptable 3)      Painful Movement is screened for many reasons. Gray often states that the number one risk factor for injury is previous injury. A movement screen helps find potential risk factors for re-injury. Moreover, if movement is dysfunctional, then all things built on that dysfunction could predispose one to more risk. The screen also helps separate pain from movement dysfunction. It is widely known that when one undergoes a pain experience, motor control is altered. Because motor control is altered, we may not get the desired training effect secondary to pain. Pain screening gives us an avenue for further assessment a la the Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA). Movement screening is the first step away from quantitative analysis to movement quality; from reductionism to holism. Once we have a basic movement map we

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